Apr 20, 2009

Google vs Yahoo!

The Difference Between Google and Yahoo!

It is commonplace for search engine marketers to drag and drop their campaigns from Google to Yahoo and MSN (and sometimes Ask). This approach needs to be treated with a grain of salt, however. It is important not to write off the other search engines, particularly Yahoo. There is a lot of excellent volume to be captured, depending upon the vertical you are targeting.

Some campaigns perform horribly in Yahoo and MSN. Indeed, it is sometimes hard to get anything out of MSN due to the low search volume. It is also easy to become frustrated with Yahoo and MSN bulksheets, especially if you do not have a ton of experience working with them. I have worked alongside search engine marketing managers who have completely written off Yahoo, and sometimes understandably so.

google and yahoo martin luther king jr

Truthfully, I have not always been the largest proponent of Yahoo’s search technology. However, in many cases, it is possible to get a lot of quality business or leads out of Yahoo -- again, if you are in the right vertical. You might even get more than you are getting in Google! There are always exceptions to the rule, but it is often times the case that the Yahoo and MSN searchers are less savvy than the Google searchers. They also tend to be older and less educated (again, not always). It is possible to make logical conclusions about what campaigns should perform well in Yahoo and MSN, and those that should not. Without giving away every client I ever worked on, suffice it to say, I would think a Rolex e-commerce site would do poorly in Yahoo, and lead generation for The University of Phoenix could do quite well.

There are always exceptions to the rule, but it is often times the case that the Yahoo and MSN searchers are less savvy than the Google searchers. They also tend to be older and less educated (again, not always). It is possible to make logical conclusions about what campaigns should perform well in Yahoo and MSN, and those that should not. Without giving away every client I ever worked on, suffice it to say, I would think a Rolex e-commerce site would do poorly in Yahoo, and lead generation for The University of Phoenix could do quite well.

I found it very interesting when I logged into each search engine (today is the Martin Luther King, Jr. Holiday). Google has a very slick looking image of Dr. King on a handsome background. Yahoo has something that looks like Monopoly Money. Well this is not direct evidence of the different audiences (and the brains behind each operation), it works out to being a funny comparison of the two search engines.

In conclusion, if you are running paid search and you have the budget for all of the engines, make sure to give Yahoo and MSN a whirl. They aren’t always going to work well for what works in Google, and sometimes they won’t work well at all. But it is worth dealing with those clunky bulksheets and the Panama UI to find out, because there is still a lot of quality traffic to be captured.


Friendship vs Love

Difference between friendship and love

The age old debate that is there difference between friendship and love goes on. But the fact remains that is there is any difference between friendship and love and if there is one what is it? Well one can simply say that there is thin line between friendship and love.

In any relationship whether it is of love or friendship, it’s quite natural for the people to be intrigued. One would be sorry to say that exact, precise and succinct answers to such questions are not possible. As these two are complementary to each other and one can readily opine that friendship in true terms is purely, subset of emotion love.

How friendship is different from love?
One of the most common questions that pop up in anybody’s mind is that, how exactly can one define friendship? How can we term that a person we hang out with is, our true friend? Is he/she is my true friend? What is the best possible way in rendering and defining the friendship? The answers to these common questions could be sought too, but in most of the cases, they are case specific.

In friendship one must be clear in mind that, this relationship is not the state of mind. It’s purely act. The quality of friendship may vary from one person to the other. One may not be good with it, or could be bad too. It may not even reflect the true you. Some times it is unbalanced too among two people. But the most common factors through which we judge our friendship is that, we feel, care and are ready to help them at time of need and distress. He/ she are the person with whom we share most of our time and love to hang out. He or she is the person with whom we share most of our thoughts, secrets and wild dream’s which we dare not to do even with our parents or siblings.

How love is different from friendship?

One of the most common facet’s of love is that the intimacy that the two individuals share is deeper, greater and much different from that of friendship. One cannot avoid or overlook the physical element of love. The love in friendship has defined boundaries and there is no place for physical intimacy, irrespective of the depth your relationship.

In a love the attachment grows to that extent, that if one of the individuals is pained then the other also feels the hurt and ache. In today’s context one can easily say that both the relationships be it love or friendship may last for life time. But the fact remains that the amount of time that is spent in love is more as compared to that in friendship.

The thing is that friendship and love usually are not the same stuff’s. Life revolves around friendship. A friendship is so deep encrusted that most of the stuffs are naturally understood by our friends.


Astrology vs Astronomy.

The difference between astrology and astronomy.

Astrology is the study of relationships between humanity and objects in space beyond the human world. Various celestial movements and alignments are used to define, explain and/or predict events involved in human lives. Celestial bodies are directly connected to the totality of human experience.

Astronomy is the study of objects in space and the relationships they have to one another, primarily as can be described and confined mathematically. There are no causal relationships in Astronomy between the physics of the universe and the day to day lives of people living on the Earth in either fortune or spirituality - outside of obvious impacts like solar activity as it relates to droughts or the moon acting upon the tides and so on.

Few highly regarded scientists working at reputable universities or other institutions hold Astrology to offer any significant source of "scientific fact" outside of Astrology's having accurately charted the movement of planets and other celestial bodies with great care (as did many other practitioners of various belief systems around the world). Believers in Astrology claim to have insights from the universe that transcend what human science comprehends.


The essence of science is to pursue lines of inquiry through controlled observation and experimentation to derive verifiable and repeatable results. A scientist gets an idea that he or she believes might describe or define some new universal phenomenon and will then formulate that idea into what is called a "hypothesis," which is essentially a declaration that goes something like "when X is exposed to condition Y, Z will occur."

Once a particular phenomenon can be proven to function in a certain way, the scientist(s) write about the successfully tested hypothesis and pass it around the scientific community. As more and more scientists toy with and perhaps find the hypothesis to work in their own experiments, many of which are specifically designed to do nothing BUT prove it wrong, that hypothesis can begin to move from the realm of being merely a "hypothesis" into the land of "theory" instead.

Once something is considered to be a theory, that idea holds greater sway, but it still remains suspect until all attempts to disprove it finally exhaust themselves over time. Eventually, once all kinds of scientific disciplines have confirmed the theory just cannot be disproved, finally that theory becomes what is called a "law," like Isaac Newton's "Law of Gravity." (You will notice that Einstein's incredibly useful ideas regarding "relativity" were put out in the opening years of the 20th century and now, over a hundred years later, the "theory of relativity" is still only counted as a theory and not a law.)


Astrology does not hold up to this kind of scientific rigor, nor do its practitioners really try. Much of Astrology is faith based, as most spiritual endeavors are. Trying to limit Astrology to the field of science does it a huge disservice, as that is not precisely what astrologers try to do. Astrologers look for behavioral connections between human beings and the alignment of planets and assorted movements in the skies. A good Astrologer can astound a user with perspicacity and profound metaphysical and psychological insight. However, and perhaps unfortunately, they are often unable to duplicate this result consistently or for everyone with statistically significant accuracy, which is why science just can't use Astrology to inform its meticulous discipline. Believers in Astrology will defend its significance vehemently despite inconsistent results, much as will believers in Palmistry and Tarot.

Ignorance or failure to properly grasp astrological meanings and signs are frequently attributed to the uncertainty inherant to this kind of predictive enterprise. It is the shortcomings of the interpretation that fails rather than any flaws in Astrology itself.

It comes down to meaning.

Ultimately, the difference is that Astronomy is entirely based on science, the scientific method, as a means for discovering things. Observations are made of the heavens, as is done in Astrology, but nothing is extracted or interpreted as having meaning or prophetic powers for anything beyond that which physics can mathematically predict based on established evidential trends. Astronomy is concerned with mathematically quantifiable facts that can be accreted into, eventually, astronomical laws, which will then serve as foundations for the conception of new hypotheses and so on until science eventually figures out how the universe works. Astronomical science does not put forth any claims or assertions about how humanity behaves or will behave based on how the celestial objects move about. A scientist might observe a meteor heading towards the Earth and begin calculating its velocity and mass based on movement of light and assorted other measurable details, and he or she might go on to predict where it might land and how big a crater the impact will create based on the ground density of the impact zone and other factors in that vein. That scientist might even attempt to calculate the number of deaths likely to occur based on census details for the region too. But if that astronomer is a good scientist, he or she will not be attaching any meaning or causation of that impact to humanity. In Astronomy, there is no connection to be had. An astrologist might have a different view.

Therefore, Astronomy is a science based primarily in - and arguably limited to - physics and math. Astrology is a belief system that involves interpretation of meaning from movements in the sky and other natural events. Astrology does not carry any weight in the scientific community. Astronomy does.

It is not the purpose of this article to discredit or credit either field, but merely to make clear the differences of approach.


Allah vs God

The difference between God and Allah

I think it is the time to know the difference between God and Allah.
" The difference between God and Allah "

At the beginning, I feel a linguistic analysis of the origins and meanings of the two terms, God and Allah, would be most useful.

According to most dictionary references, the majority of words currently in use today trace their source back to Latin, Greek or Old, Middle; German, French or Spanish, along even with reference sometimes to Hebrew or Sanskrit. Arabic is rarely referenced, which is another problem that needs to be tackled in a separate article.

Attempting to find the origin for the term, God proved to be quite fruitless as I perused all major English dictionaries, old and new. I welcome anyone’s proofs to the contrary, and, until such time as any are brought forward, I invite all to read this answer, which is based on what I consider to be the supreme truth, found in the Arabic language. Taken as a given that the concept of the word God in most minds is that of strength and giving, fairness and capability, I offer the possibility that the root can be found in the Arabic term Jude, which root is jawada - which is this meaning exactly. A related term in English would be the word "good".

Let us now look at the Arabic word Allah - we can immediately recognize the English word "all", indeed we have herein one of the best characteristics of Allah’s attributes; The All-Knowing, All-Seeing, All-Hearing, All-Merciful etc. Every baby born anywhere in the world has, as his first utterance the short "a" sound. No new born ever cried out with an "s" or a "t" or a "d" or a "b" sound! All exclaim the "a" as an expression of the oneness of humanity, in relation to its Creator. Also, all final deathbed gasps exhale the "h", the last letter of the name of Allah. This is because He is the First and the Last! When we scream in pain or cry out in fear or grunt and groan during strenuous exercise or disgust, or exclaim in joy or surprise, it is the very same… "ahhh", and not the "g" of the word God that we all emit. This reality is intrinsic in our innermost selves, something out of our control!!

Why is this so, you may ask. It is because the word Allah refers to the concept of that which all turns to for refuge and repose. Without finding this state of rest and security, we are in a constant state of frustration and irritability. Our souls all yearn to reach the place of contentment, which can only be found by knowing Allah as He has revealed Himself to us, in the Qur’an.

Another interesting facet of the two related languages is the relation of the words "man" and "woman". The word "man" (mim, nun) in Arabic is the personal pronoun for the human being, as in the English word "man". Both languages use the term also in the sense of "whom". Therefore, the usage of the term "man" is nearly identical in both languages!

The word "wa" in Arabic means "and". In English the word "woman" could be seen to be derived from the concept of a partner to the man. Therefore, the woman or "waman" as it might be more correctly rendered, can be construed as meaning "and-man" or "together with man", the couple which forms the very essence of the human race… The reason why I referred to the letter "o" as an incorrect rendering in the English word woman is my idea that "o’s" and short "e’s" are extraneous additions to the correct pronunciations, found in the Qur’an. As these sounds were not originally revealed by Allah. The Qur’an is the only revelation, which has remained intact. Both the original Torah and Bible are non-extant and therefore, not open to analysis of their original linguistic aspects. The assumptions put forward regarding the Sumerian, Akkadian, Chaldean, Syriac, Aramaic and Hebrew roots, do not readily admit to these, being derived from the mother Arabic for obvious reasons.

Here, I shall offer a very plausible argument for my suggestion that Arabic is the true language of humanity, based on some concrete examples, with which we can form illuminating comparisons.

If Allah, the Eternal Unchanging Truth, chose to call Himself Allah… is it meet and proper for any created being to change His name? Do any of us have the power to move an atom in the universe without Allah’s first moving it and giving us the ability to be used, as His instruments?

Consider the usage in Hebrew of the word "Elohim". Elohim stands for the concept of the Supreme Being, along with His attributes. We Muslims say Allahumma for Allah and His attributes, or names and characteristics. Those who went astray, after they knew the truth from bani Isra’il is known in Arabic as "yahud". They were not content with the limitations of Allah in any fashion, and were always adding or deleting to that which Allah had ordained. Similarly, they do the same behavior today, with genetic engineering, euthanasia and cryonics etc., forever exceeding the limits of Allah, even in regards to life and death!

The word "Elohim" (plural of "eloha" - the powerful) was invented by them to resist the Almighty. "A" - The first letter of Allah’s name, was changed to "E" and the second was changed to "o". There are portions in the Pentateuch, which refer to Elohim and others, which refer to Yahweh and was changed to Jehovah only in the 14th century. It is read in Greek as Adonis and in Latin as Dominus.

Yet, Allah the Almighty, who is the "all in all" - does not ever change and thusly it would stand to reason, neither would His name. It is now and forever, as it was revealed in the Qur’an - ALLAH. And furthermore, I venture to claim that if the original Torah and Bible were extant for us to examine, we would find the word Allah there also. I wish to remind all sincere Christians, correctly following Jesus - who never called himself God - of the very first two of the Ten Commandments.

• I am the lord thy god, thou shall not have false gods before me.
• Thou shall not take the name of the lord thy god in vain.

Allah warns those who divide Him, as the sole to be worshipped and His total sovereignty over all His Creation (known in Arabic as tawhid al-uluhiyya and rububiyya) He also cautions against tampering with His very name. Would you not then glean from these two first commandments that those who prefer the "E" should be careful of taking the Holy Name in vain?

It is the One and Only we worship, Allah as He called himself… nothing is comparable to Him, never begot and was never begotten… Light of heavens and earth. The Transcendental, Who would not be incarnated, the All-mighty and All-compassionate.

"Need your comments and your evaluation"



Differences between ASP and ASP.NET

ASP.NET has better language support, a large set of new controls and XML based components, and better user authentication.
ASP.NET provides increased performance by running compiled code.
ASP.NET code is not fully backward compatible with ASP.
New in ASP.NET

  • Better language support
  • Programmable controls
  • Event-driven programming
  • XML-based components
  • User authentication, with accounts and roles
  • Higher scalability
  • Increased performance - Compiled code
  • Easier configuration and deployment
  • Not fully ASP compatible
Language Support

ASP.NET uses the new ADO.NET.
ASP.NET supports full Visual Basic, not VBScript.
ASP.NET supports C# (C sharp) and C++.
ASP.NET supports JScript as before.
ASP.NET Controls

ASP.NET contains a large set of HTML controls. Almost all HTML elements on a page can be defined as ASP.NET control objects that can be controlled by scripts.
ASP.NET also contains a new set of object oriented input controls, like programmable list boxes and validation controls.
A new data grid control supports sorting, data paging, and everything you expect from a dataset control.
Event Aware Controls

All ASP.NET objects on a Web page can expose events that can be processed by ASP.NET code.
Load, Click and Change events handled by code makes coding much simpler and much better organized.
ASP.NET Components

ASP.NET components are heavily based on XML. Like the new AD Rotator, that uses XML to store advertisement information and configuration.
User Authentication

ASP.NET supports forms-based user authentication, including cookie management and automatic redirecting of unauthorized logins.
(You can still do your custom login page and custom user checking).
User Accounts and Roles

ASP.NET allows for user accounts and roles, to give each user (with a given role) access to different server code and executables.
High Scalability

Much has been done with ASP.NET to provide greater scalability.
Server to server communication has been greatly enhanced, making it possible to scale an application over several servers. One example of this is the ability to run XML parsers, XSL transformations and even resource hungry session objects on other servers.
Compiled Code

The first request for an ASP.NET page on the server will compile the ASP.NET code and keep a cached copy in memory. The result of this is greatly increased performance.
Easy Configuration

Configuration of ASP.NET is done with plain text files.
Configuration files can be uploaded or changed while the application is running. No need to restart the server. No more metabase or registry puzzle.
Easy Deployment

No more server restart to deploy or replace compiled code. ASP.NET simply redirects all new requests to the new code.

ASP.NET is not fully compatible with earlier versions of ASP, so most of the old ASP code will need some changes to run under ASP.NET.
To overcome this problem, ASP.NET uses a new file extension ".aspx". This will make ASP.NET applications able to run side by side with standard ASP applications on the same server.


American vs British English

Differences Between American and British English

While there are certainly many more varieties of English, American and British English are the two varieties that are taught in most ESL/EFL programs. Generally, it is agreed that no one version is "correct" however, there are certainly preferences in use. The most important rule of thumb is to try to be consistent in your usage. If you decide that you want to use American English spellings then be consistent in your spelling (i.e. The color of the orange is also its flavour - color is American spelling and flavour is British), this is of course not always easy - or possible. The following guide is meant to point out the principal differences between these two varieties of English.

Use of the Present Perfect

In British English the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment. For example:

I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?
In American English the following is also possible:
I lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

In British English the above would be considered incorrect. However, both forms are generally accepted in standard American English. Other differences involving the use of the present perfect in British English and simple past in American English include already, just and yet.

British English:

I've just had lunch
I've already seen that film
Have you finished your homework yet?

American English:

I just had lunch OR I've just had lunch
I've already seen that film OR I already saw that film.
Have your finished your homework yet? OR Did you finish your homework yet?


There are two forms to express possession in English. Have or Have got

Do you have a car?
Have you got a car?
He hasn't got any friends.
He doesn't have any friends.
She has a beautiful new home.
She's got a beautiful new home.

While both forms are correct (and accepted in both British and American English), have got (have you got, he hasn't got, etc.) is generally the preferred form in British English while most speakers of American English employ the have (do you have, he doesn't have etc.)

The Verb Get

The past participle of the verb get is gotten in American English. Example He's gotten much better at playing tennis. British English - He's got much better at playing tennis.


Probably the major differences between British and American English lies in the choice of vocabulary. Some words mean different things in the two varieties for example:

Mean: (American English - angry, bad humored, British English - not generous, tight fisted)

Rubber: (American English - condom, British English - tool used to erase pencil markings)

There are many more examples (too many for me to list here). If there is a difference in usage, your dictionary will note the different meanings in its definition of the term. Many vocabulary items are also used in one form and not in the other. One of the best examples of this is the terminology used for automobiles.

  • American English - hood
    British English - bonnet

  • American English - trunk
    British English - boot

  • American English - truck
    British English - lorry

Once again, your dictionary should list whether the term is used in British English or American English.


There are also a few differences in preposition use including the following:

  • American English - on the weekend
    British English - at the weekend

  • American English - on a team
    British English - in a team

  • American English - please write me soon
    British English - please write to me soon

Past Simple/Past Participles

The following verbs have two acceptable forms of the past simple/past participle in both American and British English, however, the irregular form is generally more common in British English (the first form of the two) and the regular form is more common to American English.

  • Burn
    Burnt OR burned

  • Dream
    dreamt OR dreamed

  • Lean
    leant OR leaned

  • Learn
    learnt OR learned

  • Smell
    smelt OR smelled

  • Spell
    spelt OR spelled

  • Spill
    spilt OR spilled

    spoilt OR spoiled


Here are some general differences between British and American spellings:

Words ending in -or (American) -our (British) color, colour, humor, humour, flavor, flavour etc.
Words ending in -ize (American) -ise (British) recognize, recognise, patronize, patronise etc.

The best way to make sure that you are being consistent in your spelling is to use the spell check on your word processor (if you are using the computer of course) and choose which variety of English you would like. As you can see, there are really very few differences between standard British English and standard American English. However, the largest difference is probably that of the choice of vocabulary and pronunciation.

Spelling differences between American and British English

-or vs. -our
American British
color colour
favorite favourite
honor honour

-ll vs. -l

American British
enrollment enrolment
fulfill fulfil
skillful skilful

-og vs. -ogue

American British
analog analogue
catalog catalogue
dialog dialogue

-ck or -k vs. -que
American British
bank banque
check cheque
checker chequer

-ense vs. -enze
American British
defense defence
license licence

-ze vs. -se

American British
analyze analyse
criticize criticise
memorize memorise

-er vs. -re

American British
center centre
meter metre
theater theatre

-e vs. -oe or -ae

American British
encylopedia encylycopaedia
maneuver manoeuvre
medieval mediaeval

-dg vs. -dge (or -g vs. -gu)

American British
aging ageing
argument arguement
judgment judgement


American British
jewelry jewellery
draft draught
pajamas pyjamas
plow plough
program programme
tire tyre

In British English, words that end in -l preceded by a vowel usually double the -l when a suffix is added, while in American English the letter is not doubled. The letter will double in the stress is on the second syllable.

Base Word American British
counsel counseling counselling
equal equaling equalling
model modeling modelling
quarrel quarreling quarrelling
signal signaling signalling
travel traveling travelling
excel excelling excelling
propel propelling propelling

Spelling of verbs

The first category involves verbs that use -ed or -t for the simple past and past participle. Generally, the rule is that if there is a verb form with -ed, American English will use it, and if there is a form with -t, British English uses it. However, these forms do not exist for every verb and there is variation. For example, both American and British English would use the word 'worked' for the past form of 'to work', and in American English it is common to hear the word 'knelt' as the past tense of 'to kneel'.

Base form American British
to dream dreamed dreamt
to leap leaped leapt
to learn leareded learnt

base form vs. -ed

The second category of difference includes verbs that use either the base form of the verb or the -ed ending for the simple past.

Base form American British
to fit fit fitted
to forecast forecast forecasted
to wed wed wedded

irregular vs. -ed

The third category of difference includes verbs that have either an irregular spelling or the -ed ending for the simple past.

Base form American British
to knit knit knitted
to light lit lighted
to strive strove strived

So what does tall his mean for learners of English? In the beginning, unfortunately, it means a lot of memorization (or memorisation) and of course, a few mistakes. For spoken English, the differences are barely audible, so forge ahead and don't be too concerned with whether a word is spelled 'dwelled' or 'dwelt'. With written English, however, if you are unsure about the spelling, better to ask your teacher or look the word up in the dictionary and see what the experts say.



Difference between HTML and XHTML

Few years back only there was a fire blazing to use HTML code for designing websites. Its presentation was later on succeeded by CSS. CSS used style sheets for the purposes. These definitely improved the materialization and appearance of all the websites. Today, HTML has been further improvised to XHTML.

XHTML is a more stable, sharpened and sophisticated version. This further introduced the concept of tagging into the websites. While going through modern version, most Word Press themes have been designed on XHTML rather then HTML. With the use of XHTML done in bulk across the web, it is imperative for users, who are designing, changing or preparing their themes, to know the difference between XHTML & HTML. These differences might even help in knowing the different validation errors, which usually arise from improper XHTML usage.

What is HTML & XHTML?
Hyper Text Markup Language or HTML is the means for describing the structure of text information in all web documents. It also helps in supplementing texts with embedded images, interactive forms and numerous objects. Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language or XHTML is similar in most features to HTML. It has been designed for being a HTML successor. Most experts say that the best way of referring XHTML is to call it a better HTML.

The Differences
With a basic knowledge about HTML, you are going to feel glad in knowing that major part of the HTML scripts is still applicable in XHTML. XHTML is nothing but a completion HTML codes.

All the tags should be closed
Tag closing is a compulsion in XHTML. In HTML,

tag can be used for opening it and not for closing. In HTML, there is a liberty to ignore validation of the code. However in XHTML, such concept is incorrect and the code would never validate.

XHTML closes the tags that were previously left open by HTML and hence completes it. These closing tags were always necessary. By using XHTML, you are just enforcing it.

Self-closing tags
XHTML now puts more emphasis on closing ALL the tags and it is not limited only to an open tag. Items including images or line breaks that are without HTML closing tags should have XHTML self-closing.

Alternative Text Images
All the XHTML image tags should be provided with alt attributes. None of the attributes are the region for editorial commentaries about any picture. Alt tags should always contain the image description. This allows them to meet requirements for accessibility along with different web standards.

Tagging in nested form
In XHTML, closing of the nested tags should be done in the same form in which opening was performed. Although nesting is also followed in HTML, yet it is not as strict as in XHTML.

Use of lowercase tags
In case of HTML, you can get away even if you are using tags in uppercase similar to
. However with XHTML, all the tags should be in lowercase similar to

It can be said that both these themes are almost similar. The only thing that differentiates both of them is that XHTML is stricter in rules than HTML.


C vs C++

Difference between c and c++

History of C Language

The C programming language was designed by Dennie's Ritchie in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories. It was first used system implementation language for the nascent Unix operating system. The main reason to devised C was to overcome the limitations of B. It was Derived from the type-less language BCPL ((Basic Combined Programming Language). C was was the evolution of B and BCPL by incorporating type checking. It was originally intended for use in writing compilers for other languages.

History of C++

C++ was devised by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983 at Bell Laboratories. It is an extension of C by adding some enhancements to C language. Bjarne combined the simula's(a language designed for making simulations, created by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard) features of object oriented and the efficiency of C. The new features added to language are templates, namespaces, exception handling and use of standary library.

Difference between c and c++

  • C does not have any classes or objects. It is procedure and function driven. There is no concept of access through objects and structures are the only place where there is a access through a compacted variable. c++ is object oriented.

  • C structures have a different behavior compared to c++ structures. Structures in c do not accept functions as their parts.

  • C input/output is based on library and the processes are carried out by including functions. C++ i/o is made through console commands cin and cout.

  • C functions do not support overloading. Operator overloading is a process in which the same function has two or more different behaviors based on the data input by the user.

  • C does not support new or delete commands. The memory operations to free or allocate memory in c are carried out by malloc() and free().

  • Undeclared functions in c++ are not allowed. The function has to have a prototype defined before the main() before use in c++ although in c the functions can be declared at the point of use.

  • After declaring structures and enumerators in c we cannot declare the variable for the structure right after the end of the structure as in c++.

  • For an int main() in c++ we may not write a return statement but the return is mandatory in c if we are using int main().

  • In C++ identifiers are not allowed to contain two or more consecutive underscores in any position. C identifiers cannot start with two or more consecutive underscores, but may contain them in other positions.

  • C has a top down approach whereas c++ has a bottom up approach.

  • In c a character constant is automatically elevated to an integer whereas in c++ this is not the case.

  • In c declaring the global variable several times is allowed but this is not allowed in c++.

More Detail
  • The C programming language was designed by Dennies Ritchie in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories. It was first used system implementation language for the nascent Unix operating system. The main reason to devised C was to overcome the limitations of B. It was Derived from the type-less language BCPL ((Basic Combined Programming Language). C was was the evolution of B and BCPL by incorporating type checking. It was originally intended for use in writing compilers for other languages.
  • C++ was devised by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983 at Bell Laboratories. It is an extension of C by adding some enhancements to C language. Bjarne combined the simula's(a language designed for making simulations, created by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard) features of object oriented and the efficiency of C. The new features added to language are templates, namespaces, exception handling and use of standary library.
  • C and C++ are no more language for writing compilers and other languages, these general purpose languages are used worldwide in every field.
  • C was the C++ predecessor. As it's name implies, a lot of C remains in C++. Although not actually being more powerful than C, C++ allows the programmer to more easily manage and operate with Objects, using an OOP (Object Oriented Programming) concept.
  • The main difference between C and C++ is that C++ is object oriented while C is function or procedure oriented. Object oriented programming paradigm is focused on writing programs that are more readable and maintainable. It also helps the reuse of code by packaging a group of similar objects or using the concept of component programming model. It helps thinking in a logical way by using the concept of real world concepts of objects, inheritance and polymorphism. It should be noted that there are also some drawbacks of such features. For example using polymorphism in a program can slow down the performance of that program.
  • On the other hand, functional and procedural programming focus primarily on the actions and events, and the programming model focuses on the logical assertions that trigger execution of program code.
  • C++ allows the programmer to create classes, which are somewhat similar to C structures. However, to a class can be assigned methods, functions associated to it, of various prototypes, which can access and operate within the class, somewhat like C functions often operate on a supplied handler pointer.
  • Although it is possible to implement anything which C++ could implement in C, C++ aids to standarize a way in which objects are created and managed, whereas the C programmer who implements the same system has a lot of liberty on how to actually implement the internals, and style among programmers will vary alot on the design choices made.
  • In C, some will prefer the handler-type, where a main function initializes a handler, and that handler can be supplied to other functions of the library as an object to operate on/through. Others will even want to have that handler link all the related function pointers within it which then must be called using a convention closer to C++.
  • To finish this discussion, C++ applications are generally slower at runtime, and are much slower to compile than C programs. The low-level infrastructure for C++ binary execution is also larger. For these reasons C is always commonly used even if C++ has a lot of popularity, and will probably continue to be used in projects where size and speed are primary concerns, and portable code still required (assembly would be unsuitable then).
  • Another difference is that, type checking for example is much more rigid in C++ than it is in C, so many a program that compiles just fine under a C compiler will result in many warnings and errors under a C++ compiler.
  • So, while C++ might be seen as "C with classes" by some, it actually is different and targeted at a different audience. C still is the best choice for code that has to be fast while still being reasonably readable and portable, eg. device drivers. C++ on the other hand is mainly used in large projects of millions of lines of code, where C code would become unmaintainable. This is mainly due to the possibility to reuse existing code by exploiting the OOP concepts of polymorphism and inheritance.


The Web server vs Application server

Difference between Web server and Application server

The Web server

A Web server handles the HTTP protocol. When the Web server receives an HTTP request, it responds with an HTTP response, such as sending back an HTML page. To process a request, a Web server may respond with a static HTML page or image, send a redirect, or delegate the dynamic response generation to some other program such as CGI scripts, JSPs (JavaServer Pages), servlets, ASPs (Active Server Pages), server-side JavaScripts, or some other server-side technology. Whatever their purpose, such server-side programs generate a response, most often in HTML, for viewing in a Web browser.

Understand that a Web server's delegation model is fairly simple. When a request comes into the Web server, the Web server simply passes the request to the program best able to handle it. The Web server doesn't provide any functionality beyond simply providing an environment in which the server-side program can execute and pass back the generated responses. The server-side program usually provides for itself such functions as transaction processing, database connectivity, and messaging.

While a Web server may not itself support transactions or database connection pooling, it may employ various strategies for fault tolerance and scalability such as load balancing, caching, and clustering—features oftentimes erroneously assigned as features reserved only for application servers.

The application server

As for the application server, according to our definition, an application server exposes business logic to client applications through various protocols, possibly including HTTP. While a Web server mainly deals with sending HTML for display in a Web browser, an application server provides access to business logic for use by client application programs. The application program can use this logic just as it would call a method on an object (or a function in the procedural world).

Such application server clients can include GUIs (graphical user interface) running on a PC, a Web server, or even other application servers. The information traveling back and forth between an application server and its client is not restricted to simple display markup. Instead, the information is program logic. Since the logic takes the form of data and method calls and not static HTML, the client can employ the exposed business logic however it wants.

In most cases, the server exposes this business logic through a component API, such as the EJB (Enterprise JavaBean) component model found on J2EE (Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition) application servers. Moreover, the application server manages its own resources. Such gate-keeping duties include security, transaction processing, resource pooling, and messaging. Like a Web server, an application server may also employ various scalability and fault-tolerance techniques.



Difference between UNIX and LINUX

Most of you might have wondered what the difference between UNIX and Linux is.

Here is some of the useful information.

UNIX Vs Linux.

  1. Most common difference: UNIX is propriety system while Linux is an

Open Source system.

2. Technical

a) In UNIX ‘Development’ is targeted toward specific audience and platform. Linux development is diverse. Linux standard base was formed to alleviate this problem but it wasn’t of much help.

b) UNIX maintains consistency b/w different versions. Have a published standard that they follow for their customer. Linux have inconsistencies b/w versions and no strict standards for tools, environment and functionality.

c) In UNIX developers are bounded by standard while in Linux developers are free and have no restriction.

d) In UNIX commands, tool and utilities etc are rarely changed over versions. Hence it is easy to for administrator to update their skills. Moreover tools and application can be used on new edition of OS without a large body of testing. In Linux commands, tools and utilities may change over time.

3. Hardware

a) UNIX was coded for small handful h/w platform/architecture. Linux was designed to be as compatible as possible. Runs on dozens of Architecture and support numerous I/O devices & other external devices. Supported devices are limitless.

b) Commercial UNIX is usually custom written for each system, making the
original cost quite high, but having the benefit of being exactly what you need.


HP-UX => PA-RISC & Itanium m/c

Solaris=> SPARC and x86

AIX=> Power Processor

Linux has base packages that are required, then you install more to get the system you need. (In this respect, Linux is closer in model to windows than a commercial UNIX OS is.)

4. Kernel

a) UNIX kernel is not freely available.

Linux kernel is freely available.

a) UNIX patches available are highly tested.

Linux patches are not highly tested as UNIX patches.

5. Updates and Bugs

a) Every OS, including UNIX and Linux, suffers from vulnerabilities and bugs that have to be patched, fixed and updated.

But Linux enjoys a clear advantage over its elder sibling in this department.

Linux bugs tend to die an early death, because the OS undergoes an incredible amount of scrutiny in the global open-source community

b) Constant peer review, proponents claim, allows one developer to leverage the experience and knowledge of all other developers around the globe; As a result, the software develops faster and becomes more robust over time. This process has made Linux an incredibly stable OS.


Hubs vs Switches

Difference between Hubs and Switches

Network Hubs

I will start with a hub then move on to talk about a switch highlighting the similarities and differences of the two devices.

  • A hub operates at the Physical Layer (Layer 1), of the OSI reference model. It is mostly used in a star topology where all nodes are connected to a hub through a single cable.
  • In a hub all packets transmissions that come into a physical port are rebroadcast to all connections. That means that if one device sends a network packet, all the other devices will receive it.
  • All devices connected to a hub are said to be in the same collision domain.
  • There are several types of hubs, namely: passive hubs, active hubs, switching hubs and ,intelligent hubs.

Network Switches

Switches on the other hand:

  • Operate in the Data Link Layer (layer 2) of the OSI reference model.
  • Like hubs, devices connected by a switch reside in the same collision domain.
  • There are two types of switches, namely: Cut-through switch and a Store-and-Forward switch.

Comparing a network switch with a hub

  • One of the differences between a switch and hub is that, a switch can filter and forward packets between LAN segments. It can therefore make a direct connection between the transmitting node and the receiving node unlike a hub which rebroadcasts signals out to all nodes connected to it beside the one in which it received the packet from.
  • The main advantage of a switch over a hub is that it does not waste bandwidth by sending packets to nodes that are not intended to receive it. Each pair of nodes(sender and receiver) has a full bandwidth of the network dedicated to it when communication through a switch. For example, for a standard Ethernet LAN, when using a hub, say with 20 computers, all the 20 computers have to share the same 10 Mbps of bandwidth. By replacing a hub with a switch, each pair of nodes has its own dedicated 10 Mbps stream. This improves the overall performance of the network without any further modifications.
  • A hub is mostly suitable for small networks. For much larger networks a switch will perform better than a hub. Switches are usually a little more expensive than hubs.

So deciding which one of the two to use will depend on several factors such as the size of the network, type of network and of course, how deep your pockets are. By compromising on the bandwidth utilization you can use a hub which is a little bit cheaper or if you want a much better network performance and optimal bandwidth usage a network hub is the way to go; moreso it is much more intelligent than a hub.

I hope this article clarifies the dilemma people usually have when deciding on the differences between a hub and a switch to be able to answer N+ exam questions like,

  • Which of the following operates at the physical layer? A. Hub, B.Switches, C. Wireless Access Points D. Routers
  • At which layer of the OSI reference model does a hub [or switch] operate?


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Viruses vs Worms vs Trojans

What is a virus?

A computer virus is a small program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user. A virus must meet two criteria:

  • It must execute itself. It often places its own code in the path of execution of another program.
  • It must replicate itself. For example, it may replace other executable files with a copy of the virus infected file. Viruses can infect desktop computers and network servers alike.

Some viruses are programmed to damage the computer by damaging programs, deleting files, or reformatting the hard disk. Others are not designed to do any damage, but simply to replicate themselves and make their presence known by presenting text, video, and audio messages. Even these benign viruses can create problems for the computer user. They typically take up computer memory used by legitimate programs. As a result, they often cause erratic behavior and can result in system crashes. In addition, many viruses are bug-ridden, and these bugs may lead to system crashes and data loss.

Five recognized types of viruses

File infector viruses File infector viruses infect program files. These viruses normally infect executable code, such as .com and .exe files. The can infect other files when an infected program is run from floppy, hard drive, or from the network. Many of these viruses are memory resident. After memory becomes infected, any noninfected executable that runs becomes infected. Examples of known file infector viruses include Jerusalem and Cascade.
Boot sector viruses Boot sector viruses infect the system area of a disk; that is, the boot record on floppy disks and hard disks. All floppy disks and hard disks (including disks containing only data) contain a small program in the boot record that is run when the computer starts up. Boot sector viruses attach themselves to this part of the disk and activate when the user attempts to start up from the infected disk. These viruses are always memory resident in nature. Most were written for DOS, but, all PCs, regardless of the operating system, are potential targets of this type of virus. All that is required to become infected is to attempt to start up your computer with an infected floppy disk Thereafter, while the virus remains in memory, all floppy disks that are not write protected will become infected when the floppy disk is accessed. Examples of boot sector viruses are Form, Disk Killer, Michelangelo, and Stoned.
Master boot record viruses Master boot record viruses are memory-resident viruses that infect disks in the same manner as boot sector viruses. The difference between these two virus types is where the viral code is located. Master boot record infectors normally save a legitimate copy of the master boot record in an different location. Windows NT computers that become infected by either boot sector viruses or master boot sector viruses will not boot. This is due to the difference in how the operating system accesses its boot information, as compared to Windows 98/Me. If your Windows NT systems is formatted with FAT partitions you can usually remove the virus by booting to DOS and using antivirus software. If the boot partition is NTFS, the system must be recovered by using the three Windows NT Setup disks. Examples of master boot record infectors are NYB, AntiExe, and Unashamed.
Multipartite viruses Multipartite (also known as polypartite) viruses infect both boot records and program files. These are particularly difficult to repair. If the boot area is cleaned, but the files are not, the boot area will be reinfected. The same holds true for cleaning infected files. If the virus is not removed from the boot area, any files that you have cleaned will be reinfected. Examples of multipartite viruses include One_Half, Emperor, Anthrax and Tequilla.
Macro viruses These types of viruses infect data files. They are the most common and have cost corporations the most money and time trying to repair. With the advent of Visual Basic in Microsoft's Office 97, a macro virus can be written that not only infects data files, but also can infect other files as well. Macro viruses infect Microsoft Office Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Access files. Newer strains are now turning up in other programs as well. All of these viruses use another program's internal programming language, which was created to allow users to automate certain tasks within that program. Because of the ease with which these viruses can be created, there are now thousands of them in circulation. Examples of macro viruses include W97M.Melissa, WM.NiceDay and W97M.Groov.
Trojan horse

Trojan horses are impostors—files that claim to be something desirable but, in fact, are malicious. A very important distinction between Trojan horse programs and true viruses is that they do not replicate themselves. Trojan horses contain malicious code that when triggered cause loss, or even theft, of data. For a Trojan horse to spread, you must invite these programs onto your computers; for example, by opening an email attachment or downloading and running a file from the Internet. Trojan.Vundo is a Trojan horse.


Worms are programs that replicate themselves from system to system without the use of a host file. This is in contrast to viruses, which requires the spreading of an infected host file. Although worms generally exist inside of other files, often Word or Excel documents, there is a difference between how worms and viruses use the host file. Usually the worm will release a document that already has the "worm" macro inside the document. The entire document will travel from computer to computer, so the entire document should be considered the worm W32.Mydoom.AX@mm is an example of a worm

virus hoax

Virus hoaxes are messages, almost always sent by email, that amount to little more than chain letters. Following are some of the common phrases that are used in these hoaxes:

  • If you receive an email titled [email virus hoax name here], do not open it!
  • Delete it immediately!
  • It contains the [hoax name] virus.
  • It will delete everything on your hard drive and [extreme and improbable danger specified here].
  • This virus was announced today by [reputable organization name here].
  • Forward this warning to everyone you know!

Most virus hoax warnings do not deviate far from this pattern. If you are unsure if a virus warning is legitimate or a hoax.

What is not a virus?

Because of the publicity that viruses have received, it is easy to blame any computer problem on a virus. The following are not likely to be caused by a virus or other malicious code:

Hardware problems No viruses can physically damage computer hardware, such as chips, boards, and monitors.
The computer beeps at startup with no screen display This is usually caused by a hardware problem during the boot process. Consult your computer documentation for the meaning of the beep codes.
The computer does not register 640 KB of conventional memory This can be a sign of a virus, but it is not conclusive. Some hardware drivers such as those for the monitor or SCSI card can use some of this memory. Consult with your computer manufacturer or hardware vendor to determine if this is the case.
You have two antivirus programs installed and one of them reports a virus This might be a virus, but it can also be caused by one antivirus program detect the other program's signatures in memory. For additional information.
Microsoft Word warns you that a document contains a macro This does not mean that the macro is a virus.
You cannot open a particular document This is not necessarily an indication of a virus. Try opening another document or a backup of the document in question. If other documents open correctly, the document may be damaged.
The label on a hard drive has changed Every disk is allowed to have a label. You can assign a label to a disk by using the DOS Label command of from within Windows.