Jan 19, 2011

World's Largest Mosquito ; world's largest

World's Largest Mosquito

The world's largest mosquito is the Toxorhynchites speciosus with the female of the species reaching a blood-sucking length of 1.5 inches.

The Toxorhynchites speciosus can be founds along the coasts of Australia but luckily for Australians these giant mosquitoes prefer to feed on nectar.

World's Largest Mosquito---


Best sports photos of 2010 (Part-3 of 4)

Best sports photos of 2010 (Part-3 of 4)

It was a big year in sports. in 2010 we had the usual suspects such as the tennis majors, the golf majors, baseball’s World Series, football’s Champions League, the Superbowl, all the famous horse races, an exciting Formula 1 season, the NBA play offs, the Tour de France and some great boxing. And then we had some big, bigger and biggest sporting events. The biggest of them all being the Football World Cup in South Africa. Add to that the Winter Olympics and golf’s Ryder Cup and 2010 was a vintage year of sports. These are 100 of the best pictures of that year in sports.


World's first Bicycle

World's first Bicycle

The first bicycle is nothing like anything you see today. Baron von Drais in Germany invented the first bicycle in 1817. The Draisienne was a steerable bicycle. It was almost entirely made of wood, had no pedals, and was propelled down the street by riders who would push their feet against the ground.

The record speed was 15 km/h. These bicycles were seen but rarely until their popularity hit which was not until the 1830’s. By the year 1842 the bicycle was donning solid rubber tires.

World's first Bicycle--


The URDU اردو Language: A Brief History

The URDU اردو Language: A Brief History

Upon the conquest of the lands past the Indus, the Muslim armies gathered and prepared for their battles. The strength of the communication between them could be the determinant of their fate. Thus was laid the foundations of the urdu language. It began with Muhammad bin Qasim, the Arab who entered what is now Pakistan proclaiming the message of the One God and his final messenger in the 700’s CE. For the next thousand years many Arab, Persian, and Turkish armies conquered the region; some for worldly gains and others who sought benefit in the life to come. A language that constituted all languages that came into power came to be known as ‘urdu ’, meaning camp, referring to history of the language how it came to existence through the army camps or as Rekhta (ریختہ), meaning molded or mixed.

The language of the Muslims of Central and Southern Asia was Persian for the time between 1000 CE and 1700 CE. It was the language of the government, literature, and education. After the 1700’s, urdu emerged as the dominating force replacing Persian gradually. urdu , however, could be considered as a derivative of Persian as its vocabulary remained over 70% Farsi. urdu differentiated itself from its predecessor with additional grammatical usages and a greater influence of Arabic. The most renowned urdu literature is written by Mirza Assadullah Ghalib and Allama Iqbal and their works are read until today.

The fall of the urdu language began in the late 1800’s. Coincidentally it was the same time when the Muslims lost control of the region to the British after ruling (majority) Hindu India for over 1200 years. The imperialist power gave great importance to the spread of English and chose Hindustani as the medium language for the average man. Hindustani was the language mixed between urdu and Hindi (with the scale slanted heavily towards the latter). It was used as a tool to merge the Hindus and the Muslims into a single identity, servants of Britain. At this point the leaders and educated among the Muslims knew that if they didn’t create their own state, they would soon be Indianized loosing their religion, culture, and identity.

The Muslims created their state to the far West of the Empire, bordering Iran. They left the cities from which they ruled such as Agra to the Hindus. Islamic architecture and signs of Muslim rule can still be found in India to this day. The land of the Muslims came to be known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریہِ پاکستان), translated as ‘the Land of the Pure’. There were great visions for the people, the country, and the state (ایمان, اتحاد, و نظم) Faith, Unity, and Discipline :based on three main principles. A leadership by the will of the people that would institute the Shari’a system (Islamic Law) while at the same time promoting education and the progression of the nation. A dream of economic, technological, and scientific progression abstaining from that which the Creator forbade and remaining steadfast on what He commanded. urdu was at that time the language of the government, educational system, and the people.

Then befell unto Pakistan tragedies that could be lamented until the Day of Resurrection. Corrupt men and women took control of the country and used the power for personal gain; education and literacy fell greatly. The urdu language was directly affected by these events. Media and technology were on the rise and more and more people had access to motion video pictures. Soon the common man was drawn to the glamour of English movies and the indecency of Indian films; the study and usage of urdu grew to minimal levels. After a military coupe d’etat Pakistan fell into the hands of Musharraf and his officers. Now, the future of the urdu language looks grim resting in the hands of those ready to compromise themselves and their faith. Continued in ‘Future’ section.

The URDU اردو Language: A Brief History ---


Photogallary of Pakistan

Pakistan is one of the liveliest and most colorful places in the world. The following photographs reflect my experiences of the timeless and timely colors of Pakistan. Consider whether any of the contemporary examples reflect any aspects of the timeless symbolism of the color as well as how the color has evolved over time.

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan

colors of pakistan


Face-detecting vending machine in Taiwan

TAIPEI: Government-funded researchers in Taiwan have developed a vending machine that recommends purchases based on people's faces, one of the inventors said on Friday.

The machine, designed by the Institute for Information Industry in Taipei, builds a profile after checking characteristics such as complexion and hair color, said researcher Tsai Chi-hang. Those clues help the machine guess a shopper's gender, approximate age and other things that might be helpful in promoting a suitable product.

Researchers spent the past year using a grant from Taiwan's Ministry of Economic Affairs to build the first machine, which was rigged up on Thursday to spit out free cosmetics samples in the institute's lobby.

The machine looks for clues like whether a person has glasses, a beard or a mustache, said Tsai. Based on that it guesses their use of make-up or frequency of shaving, Tsai said. It then might recommend a facial mask, razor, or health products that people in a certain category are statistically likely to buy.

"If you stand in front of it, the machine has ways of recognizing your characteristics, though it doesn't know exactly who you are as that would infringe on personal privacy," Tsai said in an interview.

"It's a new concept, so it's taking some time to catch on," he said, referring to a model machine installed this week in the institute's lobby.

Researchers in Japan unveiled a similar concept in August last year. The Taiwanese machine isn't a copy of that but the Taiwan researchers kept up on what Japan was doing, Tsai said.

The machine also attempts to detect any smartphones, e-readers or tablets the buyer might be carrying, the institute told Taiwan's semi-official Central News Agency. That recognition would tell the machine whether the shopper was equipped to download books, music or films.

Taiwan's institute aims to tailor-design machines for vendors, with storage capacity and exact features depending on the individual order, Tsai said. The institute has already been in touch with some vendors, he said, but he declined to say how much machines would cost.

Information on what buyers actually choose will be stored and sent to the Internet, helping retailers to analyze shopping patterns. The institute has previously researched WiMax technology and worked with China to develop the Android-based Ophone OS.

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Write your stress away

CHICAGO: Spending a few minutes before a test to write down their anxieties could help students perform better, researchers report in the journal Science.

Psychologists at the University of Chicago have discovered a quick and easy way for stressed-out students to avoid choking on a high-stakes test: Take a few minutes right before the exam to write about all those fears.

A study published online Thursday by the journal Science found that anxious students given 10 minutes to put their feelings down on paper performed significantly better than their peers who wrote about other topics or did nothing at all.

The idea that there are simple steps to improve test scores — outside of, say, private tutors or SAT prep courses — is sure to be welcome news for students, parents and educators who have long struggled to get students to perform their best on midterms, finals and college entrance exams.

"You don't have to wield these expensive or time-consuming tools," said psychology professor Sian L. Beilock, who conducted the study with graduate student Gerardo Ramirez.

Writing about emotional events had been shown to reduce rumination — which is when people devote mental energy to revisiting distressing ideas — in the clinically depressed, Beilock said. Perhaps writing about one's emotions before an exam would free up that brain power for the task at hand.

The pair performed a series of experiments to test their hypothesis. First, they asked 20 college students to take a math test just to get a base-line score, and simply told them to do their best. Next, to raise the stakes, they told the students that they could receive a monetary award if they got a good grade, and that they were being videotaped.

Before beginning the main test, the researchers asked one group of students to spend 10 minutes writing down their feelings about the test, and the other group sat quietly for that time. Everyone then took the same exam.

The researchers found that students who sat quietly did 12% worse than they had on the pre-test, and the ones who wrote about their anxieties improved their scores by 5%.

They repeated the experiment with three groups of college students: one that wrote about their test-related anxieties, one that sat quietly and a third that was asked to write about an unemotional event unrelated to the test. This time, the group that wrote about their fears improved their scores by 4%, and students in the other two groups saw their scores fall 7%. The results showed that it was writing about anxieties — not the mere act of writing — that made the difference.

Beilock and Ramirez then went to see 106 ninth-grade biology students at a Chicago-area private school six weeks before their final exam and asked the students to rate how anxious they became in testing situations. The researchers found that anxious students who spent 10 minutes writing about their feelings about the final exam earned an average grade of B-plus, compared with the B-minus received by anxious students who were told to write about a topic they thought would not be on the test.

But the coolheaded students didn't see the same bump. The researchers concluded that the writing exercise probably helped put anxious students on more equal footing with their less flappable peers.

"There's something about writing, just putting your vague thoughts and feelings into words, that seems to have a powerful influence," said Akira Miyake, a psychologist at the University of Colorado at Boulder, who was not involved in the study. "This opens up a lot of interesting issues."

But he cautioned against applying the findings too soon: "It's possible someone might start thinking about those negative thoughts over and over, so that might be another issue to be examined."

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Britain moves to ban TTP under terror law

 (Wednesday, January 19, 2011)
LONDON: Britain has moved to ban the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) as a terrorist group, making it illegal to belong to or raise funds for the organisation in Britain, the government said on Tuesday.

Home Secretary (interior minister) Theresa May introduced the order, which needs legislative approval, in parliament on Monday and it will be debated later this week. The order would ban TTP under the British Terrorism Act.

"Proscription is a tough but necessary power to tackle terrorism and is not a course of action we take lightly," said a statement from May whose order states she believes the group "is concerned in terrorism".

"Proscription means that membership of Tehrik-e-Taliban will become a criminal offence, and the organisation will not be able to lawfully operate in the UK, including by raising funds."


Powerful quake trembles region, tremors felt in Karachi

ISLAMABAD: A powerful earthquake of magnitude 7.2 shook various parts of country early on Wednesday, jolting residents of cities as far apart as Delhi and Dubai, but the epicentre was far from major population centres.

The US Geological Survey said the quake was more than 80 km (50 miles) underground, close to the town of Dalbandin in Balochistan province, near the Afghan and Iranian frontiers.

In Dalbandin, several people were injured when the roofs of their houses collapsed, provincial Transport Minister Amanullah Notizai said, but so far there were no reports of fatalities in the quake which hit at 1:23 a.m. (2023 GMT on Tuesday).

As dawn breaks and officials reach the affected area, more damage and fatalities may be revealed in an area where traditional simple structures may have fared badly under the strains of the powerful tremor.

In Quetta, 331 km (205.7 miles) northeast of the epicentre, a woman died at a city hospital from a heart attack following the quake, hospital officials said.

In Karachi, 400 km (250 miles) away, people woke and rushed out of their homes in very cold conditions, reciting verses from the Holy Quran after the tremors hit at 1:23 a.m. (2023 GMT on Tuesday). The authorities there had no immediate reports of casualties or damage.

An official at Edhi Foundation, said there were no reports of any damage.

"I was sleeping when the quake struck and I felt like my bed was shaking. I got up and ran to check the children...and thankfully they were all okay," said Masooma Rizvi, a housewife. "It was very scary. I have never felt anything like this before."

In an ominous indication of problems for the small towns and villages of Balochistan, however, people in India's border province of Rajasthan said cracks appeared in the walls of rural dwellings. The simple structures common in the area closest to the quake may fare badly under the strains of major tremors.

"There could be aftershocks during the next week -- there are active fault lines in Balochistan, said country's chief meteorologist Mohammad Riaz."

The Pacific Tsunami Center said the onshore quake had not triggered a tsunami in the Indian Ocean.


History Of Rajputs Cast: Cast History In Pakistan

History Of Rajputs Cast: Cast History In Pakistan

History Of Rajputs Cast
The Rajputs (from the Sanskrit tatpurusha compound rājaputra, "son of a king"), are a ruling class of Indian subcontinent and south east Asia. In the Hindustani language, those belonging to the Kshatriya/Chattari Varna of Hindus are generally referred to as "Rajputs ". They rule in Indian sub-continent from 6th century to 20th century and south east Asia from 9th to 15th centuries. Nepal was the last empire of Rajputs which ended in 1950. At the time of India's independence in 1947, Rajputs ruled in the "overwhelming majority" of the princely states of Rajasthan and Saurashtra, where the largest number of princely states were found. Many Rajputs claim descent from Rama and Krishna.

Chattis Rajkul
Today with the aid of inscriptions and copper plates discovered, it is possible to trace the history of the royal clans with considerable certainty. However they were not available in 17-18th century when a number of chronicles (khyats) were compiled, often based on oral tradition. By this time, the Agni-kunda myth had been expanded to explain the origin of four of the major clan. James Tod wrote his influential book The Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan in 1829 and 1832 on the basis of these chronicles. Other authors have used some of his hypotheses, even though the texts discovered and read during the 20th century show that Todd's hypotheses are sometimes inaccurate.

The Chattis Rajkul are list of kings of the 36 different states of India. During the time of Alexander the Great's invasion in 3rd century BC, there were 16 great kingdoms in India called Mahajanpadas. Each Mahajanapada had several janapadas and their number was about 36. Chattis Rajkul or 36 royal clans include clans from Suryavansha, Chandravansha, Agnivansha, and Nagvansha. Suryavanshi's are descendants of Surya (sun god) and one of them was Rama, an incarnation of Hindu trinity Vishnu.Krishna was Chandravanshi Ahir. Even today Suryavanshi Rajputs pray to Rama and Chandravanshis pray to Krishna. The Agnivanshi's pray to various deities including Rama and Krishna.

36 royal clans of India

In the 1820s, Colonel Todd published a list of the 36 royal races of India.

Early dynasties

Rajputras were ruling families of various states from ancient times. Most of them belonged to either Surya or Chandra lineages, such as the Kosalia, Kuru, Panchal, Magadh, Kalinga, Anga, Bang, Madra etc. are mentioned in Mahabharata. These families continued to rule till they were annexed by others. In modern times, of which written history is available in terms of stone inscriptions and other sources, the first Rajput kingdoms are attested to in the 6th century and these Rajputs rose to prominence in the 5th and 6th centuries after the collapse of Gupta empire.

The Rajput empire spread in many countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Southeast Asia and some parts of Tibet. The clans that descended from the solar and lunar lineage rose to prominence first, followed by the four Agnivanshi clans, the Gurjar Pratiharas (Parihars), Chauhans (Chamahanas), Solankis (Chaulukyas),and the Paramaras.

Rajput resistance to Muslim invasions

Fall of Gupta Empire
Rajput kingdoms contended with the rising and expansionist empires of Central Asia, be they Arabs, Moghuls, Mongols, Afghans, or other Turkic peoples. They earned their reputation by fighting these battles with a code of chivalrous conduct rooted in their strong adherence to tradition and Hindu dharma. The Rajput Kingdoms held out against the Arab Caliphates and other Central Asian Empires for several centuries. A few Rajput Kings did convert to Islam, and eventually an alliance formed with the Mughals, which laid the foundations for the creation of the largest pre-colonial era empire in South Asia.

Gaznavid invasions
In the early 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni conquered the Hindu-Shahi kingdom in the Punjab, and his raids into northern India weakened the Gurjar Pratihara kingdom, which was drastically reduced in size and came under the control of the Chandelas. Mahmud sacked some temples across northern India to stop idol worship, including the temple at Somnath in Gujarat, but his permanent conquests were limited to the Punjab. The early 11th century also saw the reign of the polymath king Raja Bhoj, the Paramara ruler of Malwa.

Spread of the Gahadvalas, Chandels, Tomars and Chauhans
The Rathores, as the Gahadvala dynasty, reestablished the kingdom of Kannauj, capturing it from Tomar rulers ruling the Ganges plain. The Rahevars, as the Rever dynasty, established the kingdom of Tarangadh in 11th through the 12th century, and conquering Marwar in the 13th. Chandela's established Jejakbhukti and ruled from Mahoba.

The Rajputs did unite once in a while against foreign invaders - once under Bappa Rawal, then under Shakti Kumar of Mewar/Maiwar. A few times under Jaypal Tomar but once the foreign invasions stopped, the Rajputs fought each other in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Major wars broke out between Tomars of Delhi and Gahadavalas of Kannauj. The Kalinadi being the witness of many such wars, as it was the line of control between those kingdoms.

Muhammad Ghori's Invasion
Prithiviraj II, ruler of Delhi, crushed Muhammad of Ghor in 1191 with the help of his Bargujar allies and relatives at the First Battle of Tarain and Ghori was captured. After Ghori sued for his life he was let go despite strong resistance by Prithviraj's generals. Ghori managed to defeat Prithviraj the following year at the Second Battle of Tarain, and the attacks of Muhammad's armies brought down the Gahadvala kingdom of Kannauj in 1194.

Slave Dynasty and Rajputs
The Delhi Sultanate was founded by Qutb ud din Aybak, Muhammad of Ghor's successor, in first decade of the 13th century. The Chauhans reestablished themselves at Ranthambore, led by Govinda Chauhan, grandson of Prithviraj III. Jalore was ruled by another branch of Chauhans, the Songaras. Another branch of the Chauhans, the Hadas, established a kingdom in Hadoti in the mid-13th century.

Fight against Khiljis
Sultan Ala ud din Khilji (1296–1316) conquered Gujarat (1297) and Malwa (1305),captured fort of mandu and handed over to the Songara Chouhans, and captured the fortresses of Ranthambore (1301), Mewar's capital Chittorgarh (1303) and Jalor (1311) after long sieges with fierce resistance from their Rajput defenders. Ala ud Khilji also fought with Bhatti Rajputs of Jaisalmer and occupied the Golden Fort.

Fight against Tuglaqs
Mewar reestablished their supremacy within 50 years of the sack of Chittor under Maharana Hammir. Hammir defeated Muhammad Tughlaq with Bargujars as main allies and captured him. Tughlaq had to pay huge ransom and relinquish all of Mewar's lands. After this the Delhi Sultanate did not attack Chittor for a few hundred years. The Rajputs reestablished their independence, and Rajput states were established as far east as Bengal and north into the Punjab. The Tomaras established themselves at Gwalior, and the ruler Man Singh Tomar built the fortress which still stands there. Mewar emerged as the leading Rajput state, and Rana Kumbha expanded his kingdom at the expense of the sultanates of Malwa and Gujarat.

Lodis and Mughals
The Delhi Sultanate recovered somewhat under the Lodi dynasty, and Rana Sanga of Mewar convinced Babur to challenge Ibrahim Lodi for control of the Delhi Sultanate, hoping that the struggle between Muslim rivals would allow the Rajputs to reclaim Delhi. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat on April 21, 1526, and the Rana Sanga rallied a Rajput army to challenge Babur. Babur barely managed to defeat the Rajputs at the Battle of Khanua on March 16, 1527. The Rajput rulers agreed to pay tribute to Babur, but most retained control of their states, and struggles between Babur's successor Humayun and the Suri Dynasty for control of the Sultanate preoccupied the Muslims for several decades.

Rajputs at the rise of the Mughals
Soon after his defeat in 1527 at The Battle of Khanwa, Rana Sanga died in 1528. Bahadur Shah of Gujrat became a powerful Sultan. He captured Raiseen in 1532 and defeated Mewar/maiwar in 1533. He helped Tatar Khan to capture Bayana which was under Mughal occupation. Humayun sent Hindal and Askari to fight Tatar Khan. At the battle of Mandrail in 1534 Tatar Khan was defeated and killed. Raja of Amber Puranmal helped Mughals in this battle. He himself was killed in this battle. Now it became necessary for Humayun to crush the rising power of Bahadur Shah. When Bahadur Shah was engaged in besieging the fort of Chittor, Humayun started against him. Hearing the news Rani "Karmawati" widow of Rana Sanga sent Rakhi to Hymayun. Humayun is considered to have accepted the Rakhi but stopped at Sarang Pur in January 1535. Mewar/Maiwar was weakened due to constant struggles. After a long wait Rajputs had a last fight on March 8, 1535 and Rani Karmawati together with other women committed Jauhar the same day. Humayun now pursued Bahadur Shah. Later Bahadur Shah and Sher Shah Suri created many problems for Humayun and he lost the empire. Fortunately he regained the empire in July 1555. Soon after he died in January 1556. Akbar[which?] the son of Humayun tried to persuade Mewar to accept Mughal sovereignty like other Rajputs . But Rana Udai Singh did not accept it. Ultimately Akbar besieged the fort of Chittor in 1567. This time Rana Udai Singh acted tactfully and left the fort with his family. Jaimal Rathore of Merta and Fatah Singh of Kelwa were left to take care of the fort. On 23 February 1568, Akbar hit Jaimal Rathore, who was looking after the repair work, with his gun. In the same night Rajput women committed jauhar (ritual suicide) and Rajput men, led by the wounded Jaimal and Fatah Singh, fought their last battle. Akbar entered the fort and at least 30,000 people were killed. Later Akbar placed a statue of these two Rajput warriors on the gates of Agra Fort.

Akbar and Rajputs
Akbar won the fort of Chittor but Rana Udai Singh was ruling Mewar from other places.[where?] On March 3, 1572 Udai Singh died and his son Rana Pratap sat on throne at Gogunda. He vowed that he will liberate Mewar from Mughals and till then will not sleep on a bed, will not live in a palace, and will not have food in a plate (thali). Akbar tried that Rana Pratap should have a treaty with him, but he did not succeed. Finally he sent an army under Raja Man Singh in 1576. Rana Pratap was defeated at the Battle of Haldighati in June 1576. Rana Pratap escaped from the battle and started guerrilla warfare with Mughals ultimately he was successful in liberating most of the Mewar except the fort of Chittor. The Bargujars were main allies of Ranas of Mewar. Rana Pratap died on January 19, 1597 and Rana Amar Singh succeeded him. Akbar sent Salim in October 1603 to attack Mewar but he stopped at Fatehpur Sikri and sought permission from emperor to go to Allahabad and went there. In 1605 Salim sat on the throne and took the name of Jahangir.

Jehangir and Rajputs
Jahangir sent an army to attack Mewar in 1605 under his son Parvez. A battle was fought at Debari but was not decisive. Again in 1608 the Mughal emperor sent Mahabat Khan. In 1609 he was called back and Abdulla Khan was sent. Then Raja Basu was sent and then Mirza Ajij Koka was sent. But no conclusive victory could be achieved. Ultimately Jahangir himself arrived at Ajmer in 1613 and he appointed Shazada Khurram to fight against Mewar. Khurram devastated the areas of Mewar and cut the supplies to Rana. With the advice of the nobles and his crown prince Karna Rana sent a peace delegation to Khurram under Shubhkaran and Haridas. Khurram sought an approval of treaty from his father Jahangir at Ajmer. Jahangir issued a farman (Order) to authorize the Khurram to agree a treaty with Rana Amar Singh. The treaty was agreed between Rana Amar Singh and prince "Khurram" in 1615 CE.

* Rana of Mewar accepted Mughal sovereignty.
* Mewar and the fort of Chittor was returned to Rana.
* The fort of Chittor could not be repaired or renovated by Rana.
* Rana of Mewar would not attend personally the Mughal court. Crown prince of Mewar will attend the court and give himself and his army for the Mughals.
* It was not necessary for Rana to establish marriage alliance with Mughals.

This treaty was respectable for both parties and ended the 88-year long enmity between Mewar and the Mughals.

Aurangzeb and Rajput rebellion
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, who was far less tolerant of Hinduism than his predecessors, placed a Muslim on the throne of Marwar when the childless Maharaja Jaswant Singh died. This enraged the Rathores, and when Ajit Singh, Jaswant Singh's son was born after his death Marwar nobles asked Aurangzeb to place Ajit on the throne. Aurangzeb refused and instead tried to have Ajit assassinated. Durgadas Rathore and the dhaa maa (wet nurse) of Ajit Singh of Marwar, Goora Dhaa (The Sainik Kshatriyas Gehlot Rajput of Mandore) and others smuggled Ajit out of Delhi to Jaipur, thus starting the thirty year Rajput rebellion against Aurangzeb. This rebellion united the Rajput clans, and a triple-pronged alliance was formed by the states of Marwar, Mewar, and Jaipur. One of the conditions of this alliance was that the rulers of Jodhpur and Jaipur should regain the privilege of marriage with the ruling Sesodia dynasty of Mewar, on the understanding that the offspring of Sesodia princesses should succeed to the throne over any other offspring. This stipulation would lend itself to many future conflicts.

Maratha Domination and British Rule
The quarrels among the Rajputs led to their inviting the Marathas for help in their power struggles; this resulted in the subjection of all the Rajput states to the Marathas. Jodhpur was conquered by Sindhia, who levied a tribute of 60,000 rupees, and took from it the fort and town of Ajmer. Internecine disputes and succession wars disturbed the peace of the early years of the century, and the Rajput princes asked for British protection from the Marathas during the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817-1818. At the conclusion of this war in 1818, 18 states in the Rajputana region, of which 15 were ruled by Rajputs , became princely states of the British Raj, while the British took direct control of Ajmer, which became the province of Ajmer-Merwara. A number of other Rajput states in central India, including Rewa, Ajaigarh, Barwani, Chhatarpur, Datia, Orchha, Samthar and Ratlam, became princely states as well, and were placed under the authority of the Central India Agency.

Independent India
On India's independence in 1947, the princely states, including those of the Rajput, were given three choices: join one of the two states Indian or Pakistan, or remain independent. Rajput rulers acceded to newly independent India; Rajputana was renamed Rajasthan and became an Indian state in 1950. The Maharajas were given special recognitions and an annual amount termed privy-purse was endowed them. Many of the Rajput Maharajas entered politics and served India as elected representatives. In 1971, Indira Gandhi "de-recognized" the Maharajas and abolished the privy-purses. As a result, the Maharajas had to transform some of their palaces into hotels and tourist destinations. Today, the Maharajas still fulfill some of the ceremonial duties as recognized elders and private citizens in India.

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History Of Rajputs Cast: Cast History In Pakistan