Jun 24, 2009

History of Diwali

It is since ancient times that Diwali has been celebrated. It is not easy to say now what really was the reason behind its origin. Different people believe different events to be the cause behind Justify Fullthis festival. Here are ten mythical and historical reasons that are possibly behind the Diwali (Deepavali) celebrations.

Rama, Lakshmana, Sita and HanumanThe most well known story behind Diwali is in the Ramayana, the great Hindu epic. According to Ramayana, Rama, the prince of Ayodhya was ordered by his father, King Dasharatha, to go away from his country and come back after living in the forest for fourteen years. So Rama went on exile with his devoted wife Sita and faithful brother, Lakshmana. When Ravana, the demon king of Lanka abducted Sita and took her away to his island kingdom of Lanka, Rama fought against and killed Ravana. He rescued Sita and returned to Ayodhya after fourteen years. The people of Ayodhya were very happy to hear of their beloved prince's homecoming. To celebrate Rama's return to Ayodhya, they lit up their houses with earthen lamps (diyas), burst crackers and decorated the entire city in the grandest manner.

This is believed to have started the tradition of Diwali. Year after year this homecoming of Lord Rama is commemorated on Diwali with lights, fireworks, bursting of crackers and merriment. The festival gets its name Deepawali, or Diwali, from the rows (avali) of lamps (deepa) that the people of Ayodhya lit to welcome their King.

Sri Krishna and ArjunAnother well known story related to Diwali history is narrated in the other Hindu epic, ‘Mahabharata’.
Mahabharata reveals to us how the five royal brothers, the Pandavas, suffered a defeat in the hands of their brothers, the Kauravas, in a game of dice (gambling). As a rule imposed on them, the Pandavas had to serve a term of 13 years in exile. When the period was over, they returned to their birthplace Hastinapura on ‘Kartik Amavashya’ (the new moon day of the Kartik month). The five Pandava brothers, their mother and their wife Draupadi were honest, kind, gentle and caring in their ways and were loved by all their subjects. To celebrate the joyous occassion of their return to Hastinapura and to welcome back the Pandavas, the common people illuminated their state by lighting bright earthen lamps everywhere. The tradition is believed to have been kept alive through the festival of Diwali, which many believe, is held in remembrance of the Pandava brothers' homecoming.

It is also believed that on this very Diwali day, the Goddess of wealth, Lakshmi rose up from the ocean. The Hindu scriptures tell us that long long ago both Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons) were mortal. They had to die sometime or other, like us. But they wanted to live forever. So they churned the ocean to seek Amrita, the nectar of immortality (an event mentioned in the Hindu scriptures as "Samudra-manthan"), during which many divine objects came up. Prime among these was Goddess Lakshmi, the daughter of the king of the milky ocean, who arose on the new moon day (amaavasyaa) of the Kartik month. That very night, Lord Vishnu married her. Brilliant lamps were illuminated and placed in rows to mark this holy occassion. This event is supposed to have given rise to an annual celebration at the same time each year. Even today, Hindus celebrate the birth of the goddess Lakshmi and her marriage to Lord Vishnu on Diwali and seek her blessings for the coming year.

The origin of Diwali also refers to the stories narrated in the Hindu Puranas, the primary source of Hindu religious texts. According to the Bhagavata Purana (the most sacred Hindu text), it was on a Kartik day that Lord Vishnu, took on the form of a dwarf (Vaman-avtaara) and defeated King Bali. Bali, or rather King Mahabali, was a powerful demon king who ruled the earth. Once Bali got a boon from Lord Brahma that made him unconquerable. Even gods failed to defeat him in battles. Although a wise and good king otherwise, Mahabali was cruel to the Devas (gods). Finding no way to defeat Bali, the Devas went to Lord Vishnu and insisted him to find a way to stop Bali. Lord Vishnu made a plan. He disguised himself as a short Brahmin and approached Bali for some charity. A large-hearted king, Mahabali tried to help the Brahmin. But the whole thing was a trick by Lord Vishnu and ultimately the King had to give up all his kingship and wealth. Diwali celebrates this defeating of Mahabali by Lord Vishnu.

The Bhagavata Purana also tells us about Narakasura, an evil demon king who somehow got great powers and conquered both the heavens and earth. Narakasura was very cruel and was a terrible ruler. It is believed that Lord Vishnu killed Narakasura on the day before Diwali and rescued many women whom the demon had locked in his palace. The people of heaven and earth were greatly relieved to have got freedom from the hands of the terrible Narakasura. They celebrated the occassion with much grandeur, a tradition that is believed to be alive through the annual observance of Diwali.

Goddes KaliAccording to another legend, long ago after the gods lost in a battle with the demons, Goddess Kali took birth from the forehead of Goddess Durga to save heaven and earth from the growing cruelty of the demons. After killing all the devils, Kali lost her control and started killing anyone who came her way which stopped only when Lord Shiva intervened. You all must have seen the well-known picture of Ma Kali, with her tongue hanging out? That actually depicts the moment when she steps on Lord Shiva and stops in horror and repentance. This memorable event has been commemorated ever since by celebrating Kali Puja, which is observed in several parts of India in about the same time as Diwali.

Historically it is believed that on a Diwali day in 56 BC King Vikramaditya, the legendary Hindu king of India famed for his wisdom, bravery and large-heartedness, was crowned and declared to be a king. This was marked by a grand celebration by the citizens of Vikramaditya's kingdom celebrated the coronation of their king by lighting up small earthen lamps and that custom still prevails. Many people and even some historians say that this event gave rise to the annual observance of Diwali.

Diwali also marks the sacred occasion when on a new moon day of Kartik (Diwali day) Swami Dayananda Saraswati, one of the greatest reformers of Hinduism attained his nirvana (enlightenment) and became 'Maharshi' Dayananda, meaning the great sage Dayananda. In 1875, Maharshi Dayananda founded the Arya Samaj, "Society of Nobles", a Hindu reform movement to purify Hinduism of the many evils it became associated with at that era. Every Diwali, this great reformer is remembered by Hindus all over India.

For Jains, Diwali commemorates the enlightenment of Vardhamana Mahavira(the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankaras of the Jains and the founder of modern Jainism) which is said to have occurred on Oct. 15, 527 B.C. This is one more reason to engage in Diwali celebrations for pious Jains and other than the purpose of commemoration, the festival stands for the celebration of the emancipation of human spirit from earthly desires.

For Sikhs, Diwali holds a special significance for it was on a Diwali day that the third Sikh Guru Amar Das institutionalized the festival of lights as an occasion when all Sikhs would gather to receive the Gurus blessings. It was also on a Diwali day in 1619 that their sixth religious leader, Guru Hargobind Ji, who was held by the Mughal Emperor Jahengir in the Gwalior fort, was freed from imprisonment along with 52 Hindu Kings (political prisoners) whom he had arranged to be released as well. And it was also on the same auspicious occasion of Diwali when the foundation stone of the Golden Temple at Amritsar was laid in 1577.


History of Rramadan

Ramadan in History
Muslims should not semi-hibernate during Ramadan

Shaikh Abdullah Hakim Quick

All praises to Allah, Lord of the worlds. He who revealed in His Glorious Qur'an, "Oh you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those who came before you that you may keep your duty to your Lord (having taqwa)," 2:185. And may blessings and peace of Allah be upon His last Messenger Muhammad ibn Abdullah, forever.

Oh you who believe, Ramadan is a sacred month wherein Almighty Allah is constantly testing His creation and giving humanity the opportunity to achieve infinite, endless Bliss. Fasting is a complete purification and a means to developing the consciousness of Allah's presence. The consciousness of Allah (Taqwa) is a protection against the schemes of Shaitan, and the suffering of this world. Allah has informed us that, "Whoever keeps his duty to Allah (has taqwa), He ordains a way out for him and gives him sustenance from where he imagines not. And whoever trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him. Surely Allah attains His purpose. Allah has appointed a measure for everything." (65:2)

Many Muslims today have a misconception about fasting and the activities of a fasting person. They go into a state of semi-hibernation, spending most of their daylight hours in bed. If they fear Allah, they wake up for prayer, but then return to sleep immediately. This unnatural sleep makes them become lazy, dull-witted and often cranky.

Ramadan is actually a time of increased activity wherein the believer, now lightened of the burdens of constant eating and drinking, should be more willing to strive and struggle for Allah. The Prophet (pbuh) passes through approximately nine Ramadans after the Hijrah. They were filled with decisive events and left us a shining example of sacrifice and submission to Allah.

In the first year after the Hijrah, the Prophet (pbuh) sent Hamza ibn Abdul Mattalib with thirty Muslim riders to Saif al Bahr to investigate three hundred riders from Quraish who had camped suspiciously in that area. The Muslims were about to engage the disbelievers, but they were separated by Majdy ibn Umar al-Juhany. The Hypocrites of Al-Madinah, hoping to oppose the unity of the Muslims, built their own masjid (called Masjid al-Dirar). The Prophet (pbuh) ordered this masjid to be destroyed in Ramadan.

On the seventeenth of Ramadan, 3 A.H., Almighty Allah separated truth from falsehood at the Great Battle of Badr. The Prophet (pbuh) and 313 of his companions set out to intercept a caravan of their own goods that had been left in Makkah. It was led by Abu Sufyan, himself, and estimated at 50,000 dinars. They were met, instead, by a well-equipped army of the nobility of Quraish, intent on putting out the light of Islam. Despite being outnumbered three to one and appearing weak and unseasoned, the Muslims defended their faith with a burning desire to protect the meet their Lord through martyrdom. Allah gave them a decisive victory on this day of Ramadan, that would never to be forgotten.

In 6 A.H., Zaid ibn Haritha was sent to Wadi al-Qura at the head of a detachment to confront Fatimah bint Rabiah, the queen of that area. Fatimah had previously attacked a caravan led by Zaid and had succeeded in plundering its wealth. She was known to be the most protected woman in Arabia, as she hung fifty swords of her close relatives in her home. Fatimah was equally renowned for showing open hostility to Islam. She was killed in a battle against these Muslims in the month of Ramadan.

By Ramadan of 8 A.H., the treaty of Hudaibiyya had been broken and the Muslim armies had engaged the Byzantines in the North, Muhammad (pbuh) felt the need to strike a fatal blow to disbelief in the Arabian Peninsula and conquer the city of Mecca. Allah had declared His Sanctuary a place of peace, security and religious sanctity. Now the time had come to purify the Kaabah of nakedness and abomination. The Prophet (pbuh) set out with an army having more armed men than Al-Madinah had ever seen before. People were swelling the army's ranks as it moved toward Makkah. The determination of the believers, guided by the Will of Allah, became so awesome that the city of Makkah was conquered without a battle, on 20 Ramadan. This was one of the most important dates in Islamic history for after it, Islam was firmly entrenched in the Arabian Peninsula. During the same month and year, after smashing the idols of Makkah, detachments were sent to the other major centers of polytheism and al-Lat, Manat and Suwa, some of the greatest idols of Arabia, were destroyed.

Such was the month of Ramadan in the time of the Prophet (pbuh). It was a time of purification, enjoining the good, forbidding evil, and striving hard with one's life and wealth. After the death of the Prophet (pbuh), Muslims carried on this tradition and Allah used the true believers to affect the course of history. Ramadan continued to be a time of great trials and crucial events.

Ninety-two years after the Hijrah, Islam had spread across North Africa, Iran, Afghanistan, Yemen and Syria. Spain was under the tyrannical rule of King Roderic of the Visigoths. Roderic had forced his six million serfs and persecuted Jews to seek the aid of the Muslims of North Africa in order to be delivered. Musa ibn Husair, the Umayyad governor of North Africa, responded by sending his courageous general Tariq ibn Ziyad at the head of 12,000 Berber and Arab troops. In Ramadan of that year, they were confronted with a combined Visigoth army of 90,000 Christians led by Roderic, himself, who was seated on a throne of ivory, silver, and precious gems and drawn by white mules. After burning his boats, Tariq preached to the Muslims warning them that victory and Paradise lay ahead of them and defeat and the sea lay to the rear. They burst forth with great enthusiasm and Allah manifested a clear victory over the forces of disbelief. Not only was Roderic killed and his forces completely annihilated, but Tariq and Musa succeeded in liberating the whole of Spain, Sicily and parts of France. This was the beginning of the Golden Age of Al-Andalus where Muslims ruled for over 7000 years. In the year 582 A.H., Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, after battling with the Crusaders for years, finally drove them out of Syria and the whole of their occupied lands in the month of Ramadan. The Muslim world was then destined to meet one of its most frightening challenges.

In the seventh century A.H. the Mongols were sweeping across Asia destroying everything that lay in their path. Genghis Khan called himself "the scourge of God sent to punish humanity for their sins. "In 617 A.H. Samarkand, Ray, and Hamdan were put to the sword causing more than 700,000 people to be killed or made captive. In 656 A.H. Hulagu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, continued this destruction. Even Baghdad, the leading city of the Muslim world, was sacked. Some estimates say that as many as 1,800,000 Muslims were killed in this awesome carnage. The Christians were asked to eat pork and drink wine openly while the surviving Muslims were forced to participate in drinking bouts. Wine was sprinkled in the masjids and no Azan (call to prayer) was allowed. In the wake of such a horrible disaster and with the threat of the whole Muslim world and then Europe being subjected to the same fate, Allah raised up from the Mamluks of Egypt, Saifuddin Qutz, who, united the Muslim army and met the Mongols at Ain Jalut on 25th Ramadan, 458 A.H. Although they were under great pressure, the Muslims with the help of Allah, cunning strategy and unflinching bravery, crushed the Mongol army and reversed this tidal wave of horror. The whole of the civilized world sighed in relief and stood in awe at the remarkable achievement of these noble sons of Islam.

This was the spirit of Ramadan that enabled our righteous forefathers to face seemingly impossible challenges. It was a time of intense activity, spending the day in the saddle and the night in prayer while calling upon Allah for His mercy and forgiveness.

Today, the Muslim world is faced with drought, military aggression, wide-spread corruption and tempting materialism. Surely we are in need of believers who can walk in the footsteps of our beloved Prophet (pbuh), the illustrious Sahabah, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Qutuz, Salahuddin and the countless heroes of Islam. Surely we are in need of believers who are unafraid of the threats of the disbelievers, yet kind and humble to the believing people; Muslims whose fast is compete and not just a source of hunger and thirst.

May Allah raise up a generation of Muslims who can carry Islam to all corners of the globe in a manner that befits our age, and may He give us the strength and the success to lay the proper foundations for them. May Allah make us of those who carry out our Islam during Ramadan and after it, and may He not make us of those who say what they do not do. Surely Allah and His Angels invoke blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad. Oh you who believe send blessings and peace to him forever.



History of Christmas

Annual Christian holiday commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ. Most members of the Roman Catholic Church and followers of Protestantism celebrate Christmas on December 25, and many celebrate on the evening of December 24 as well. Members of the Eastern Orthodox Church usually delay their most important seasonal ceremonies until January 6, when they celebrate Epiphany, a commemoration of the baptism of Jesus. Epiphany also traditionally commemorates the arrival of the Three Wise Men of the East in Bethlehem (near Jerusalem, Israel), where they adored the infant Jesus and presented him with gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. The official Christmas season, popularly known as either Christmastide or the Twelve Days of Christmas, extends from the anniversary of Christ’s birth on December 25 to the feast of Epiphany on January 6. See also Christianity.

The most important holiday on the Christian calendar is Easter, which commemorates the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus . Nevertheless, many people, particularly in the United States and Canada, consider Christmas to be the most significant annual Christian event. In addition to being a religious holiday, Christmas is a widely observed secular festival. For most people who celebrate Christmas, the holiday season is characterized by gatherings among family and friends, feasting, and gift giving.

Christmas is based on the story of Jesus’ birth as described in the Gospel according to Matthew (see Matthew 1:18-2:12) and the Gospel according to Luke (see Luke 1:26-56). Roman Catholics first celebrated Christmas, then known as the Feast of the Nativity, as early as 336 ad. The word Christmas entered the English language sometime around 1050 as the Old English phrase Christes maesse, meaning “festival of Christ.” Scholars believe the frequently used shortened form of Christmas—Xmas—may have come into use in the 13th century. The X stands for the Greek letter chi, an abbreviation of Khristos (Christ), and also represents the cross on which Jesus was crucified.

Historians are unsure exactly when Christians first began celebrating the Nativity of Christ. However, most scholars believe that Christmas originated in the 4th century as a Christian substitute for pagan celebrations of the winter solstice. Before the introduction of Christmas, each year beginning on December 17 Romans honored Saturn, the ancient god of agriculture, in a festival called Saturnalia. This festival lasted for seven days and included the winter solstice, which usually occurred around December 25 on the ancient Julian calendar. During Saturnalia the Romans feasted, postponed all business and warfare, exchanged gifts, and temporarily freed their slaves. Many Romans also celebrated the lengthening of daylight following the winter solstice by participating in rituals to glorify Mithra, the ancient Persian god of light (see Mithraism). These and other winter festivities continued through January 1, the festival of Kalends, when Romans marked the day of the new moon and the first day of the month and year.

Although the Gospels describe Jesus’ birth in detail, they never mention the date, so historians do not know on what date he was born. The Roman Catholic Church chose December 25 as the day for the Feast of the Nativity in order to give Christian meaning to existing pagan rituals. For example, the Church replaced festivities honoring the birth of Mithra, the god of light, with festivities to commemorate the birth of Jesus, whom the Bible calls the light of the world. The Catholic Church hoped to draw pagans into its religion by allowing them to continue their revelry while simultaneously honoring the birthday of Jesus. The Eastern Orthodox Church took a slightly different course. By the end of the 4th century the Eastern Church in Constantinople had also begun to acknowledge December 25 as Jesus’ birthday, but it emphasized the celebration of Christ’s baptism on January 6 as the more important holiday.

Over the next 1000 years, the observance of Christmas followed the expansion of Christianity into the rest of Europe and into Egypt. Along the way, Christian beliefs combined with existing pagan feasts and winter rituals to create many long-standing traditions of Christmas celebrations. For example, ancient Europeans believed that the mistletoe plant held magic powers to bestow life and fertility, to bring about peace, and to protect against disease. Northern Europeans associated the plant with the Norse goddess of love, Freya, and developed the custom of kissing underneath mistletoe branches. Christians incorporated this custom into their Christmas celebrations, and kissing under a mistletoe branch eventually became a part of secular Christmas tradition.

During the Reformation of the 16th century, Protestants challenged the authority of the Catholic Church, including its toleration of surviving pagan traditions during Christmas festivities. For a brief time during the 17th century, Puritans banned Christmas in England and in some English colonies in North America because they felt it had become a season best known for gambling, flamboyant public behavior, and overindulgence in food and drink.

Europeans who settled in North America often found they had to change their Christmas celebrations because they could not faithfully recreate the traditions of their homelands. For example, colonists in the American South may have aspired to recreate a sense of the English Christmas. But colonial accounts of Christmas celebrations in the South do not mention the presence of mummers (masked or costumed merrymakers) or waits (musicians or carolers paid to perform at Christmastime), both of which were central figures of the traditional English Christmas. Nor do historical accounts describe settlers engaging in such traditional English customs as feasting on boars’ heads or drinking from wassail bowls (bowls filled with spiced ale or wine).

Colonists from England, France, Holland, Spain, and other countries also gradually modified their Christmas ceremonies as they encountered new cultures and traditions in the New World. For example, in large towns, where diverse groups lived close together, the common ground for celebration could often be found in public and secular festivities rather than in potentially divisive religious ceremonies. Thus, at least in New York City, the winter’s holidays often culminated on New Year’s, not Christmas.


History of Halloween

Halloween had its beginnings in an ancient, pre-Christian Celtic festival of the dead. The Celtic peoples, who were once found all over Europe, divided the year by four major holidays. According to their calendar, the year began on a day corresponding to November 1st on our present calendar. The date marked the beginning of winter. Since they were pastoral people, it was a time when cattle and sheep had to be moved to closer pastures and all livestock had to be secured for the winter months. Crops were harvested and stored. The date marked both an ending and a beginning in an eternal cycle.

The festival observed at this time was called Samhain (pronounced Sah-ween). It was the biggest and most significant holiday of the Celtic year. The Celts believed that at the time of Samhain, more so than any other time of the year, the ghosts of the dead were able to mingle with the living, because at Samhain the souls of those who had died during the year traveled into the otherworld. People gathered to sacrifice animals, fruits, and vegetables. They also lit bonfires in honor of the dead, to aid them on their journey, and to keep them away from the living. On that day all manner of beings were abroad: ghosts, fairies, and demons--all part of the dark and dread.

Samhain became the Halloween we are familiar with when Christian missionaries attempted to change the religious practices of the Celtic people. In the early centuries of the first millennium A.D., before missionaries such as St. Patrick and St. Columcille converted them to Christianity, the Celts practiced an elaborate religion through their priestly caste, the Druids, who were priests, poets, scientists and scholars all at once. As religious leaders, ritual specialists, and bearers of learning, the Druids were not unlike the very missionaries and monks who were to Christianize their people and brand them evil devil worshippers.

As a result of their efforts to wipe out "pagan" holidays, such as Samhain, the Christians succeeded in effecting major transformations in it. In 601 A.D. Pope Gregory the First issued a now famous edict to his missionaries concerning the native beliefs and customs of the peoples he hoped to convert. Rather than try to obliterate native peoples' customs and beliefs, the pope instructed his missionaries to use them: if a group of people worshipped a tree, rather than cut it down, he advised them to consecrate it to Christ and allow its continued worship.

In terms of spreading Christianity, this was a brilliant concept and it became a basic approach used in Catholic missionary work. Church holy days were purposely set to coincide with native holy days. Christmas, for instance, was assigned the arbitrary date of December 25th because it corresponded with the mid-winter celebration of many peoples. Likewise, St. John's Day was set on the summer solstice.

Samhain, with its emphasis on the supernatural, was decidedly pagan. While missionaries identified their holy days with those observed by the Celts, they branded the earlier religion's supernatural deities as evil, and associated them with the devil. As representatives of the rival religion, Druids were considered evil worshippers of devilish or demonic gods and spirits. The Celtic underworld inevitably became identified with the Christian Hell.

The effects of this policy were to diminish but not totally eradicate the beliefs in the traditional gods. Celtic belief in supernatural creatures persisted, while the church made deliberate attempts to define them as being not merely dangerous, but malicious. Followers of the old religion went into hiding and were branded as witches.

The Christian feast of All Saints was assigned to November 1st. The day honored every Christian saint, especially those that did not otherwise have a special day devoted to them. This feast day was meant to substitute for Samhain, to draw the devotion of the Celtic peoples, and, finally, to replace it forever. That did not happen, but the traditional Celtic deities diminished in status, becoming fairies or leprechauns of more recent traditions.

The old beliefs associated with Samhain never died out entirely. The powerful symbolism of the traveling dead was too strong, and perhaps too basic to the human psyche, to be satisfied with the new, more abstract Catholic feast honoring saints. Recognizing that something that would subsume the original energy of Samhain was necessary, the church tried again to supplant it with a Christian feast day in the 9th century. This time it established November 2nd as All Souls Day--a day when the living prayed for the souls of all the dead. But, once again, the practice of retaining traditional customs while attempting to redefine them had a sustaining effect: the traditional beliefs and customs lived on, in new guises.

All Saints Day, otherwise known as All Hallows (hallowed means sanctified or holy), continued the ancient Celtic traditions. The evening prior to the day was the time of the most intense activity, both human and supernatural. People continued to celebrate All Hallows Eve as a time of the wandering dead, but the supernatural beings were now thought to be evil. The folk continued to propitiate those spirits (and their masked impersonators) by setting out gifts of food and drink. Subsequently, All Hallows Eve became Hallow Evening, which became Hallowe'en--an ancient Celtic, pre-Christian New Year's Day in contemporary dress.

Many supernatural creatures became associated with All Hallows. In Ireland fairies were numbered among the legendary creatures who roamed on Halloween. An old folk ballad called "Allison Gross" tells the story of how the fairy queen saved a man from a witch's spell on Halloween. O Allison Gross, that lives in yon tower
the ugliest witch int he North Country...
She's turned me into an ugly worm
and gard me toddle around a tree...

But as it fell out last Hallow even
When the seely [fairy] court was riding by,
the Queen lighted down on a gowany bank
Not far from the tree where I wont to lie...
She's change me again to my own proper shape
And I no more toddle about the tree.

In old England cakes were made for the wandering souls, and people went "a' soulin'" for these "soul cakes." Halloween, a time of magic, also became a day of divination, with a host of magical beliefs: for instance, if persons hold a mirror on Halloween and walk backwards down the stairs to the basement, the face that appears in the mirror will be their next lover.

Virtually all present Halloween traditions can be traced to the ancient Celtic day of the dead. Halloween is a holiday of many mysterious customs, but each one has a history, or at least a story behind it. The wearing of costumes, for instance, and roaming from door to door demanding treats can be traced to the Celtic period and the first few centuries of the Christian era, when it was thought that the souls of the dead were out and around, along with fairies, witches, and demons. Offerings of food and drink were left out to placate them. As the centuries wore on, people began dressing like these dreadful creatures, performing antics in exchange for food and drink. This practice is called mumming, from which the practice of trick-or-treating evolved. To this day, witches, ghosts, and skeleton figures of the dead are among the favorite disguises. Halloween also retains some features that harken back to the original harvest holiday of Samhain, such as the customs of bobbing for apples and carving vegetables, as well as the fruits, nuts, and spices cider associated with the day.

Today Halloween is becoming once again and adult holiday or masquerade, like mardi Gras. Men and women in every disguise imaginable are taking to the streets of big American cities and parading past grinningly carved, candlelit jack o'lanterns, re- enacting customs with a lengthy pedigree. Their masked antics challenge, mock, tease, and appease the dread forces of the night, of the soul, and of the otherworld that becomes our world on this night of reversible possibilities, inverted roles, and transcendency. In so doing, they are reaffirming death and its place as a part of life in an exhilarating celebration of a holy and magic evening.


History of Father's Day

Just as the saying goes that behind every great man there is a great woman, the inspiration behind the celebration of a Father's Day is owed at least partly to its slightly earlier counterpart, Mother's Day. Mother's Day was just beginning to gather widespread attention in the United States in 1909, when Sonora Louise Smart Dodd, of Spokane, Washington, heard a sermon on the merits of setting aside a day to honor one's mother. It gave her the idea to petition for a day to honor fathers, and in particular, her own father, William Jackson Smart, who had raised her and her five siblings by himself, after her mother died in childbirth.

With support from the Spokane Ministerial Association and the YMCA, her efforts paid off, and on June 19, 1910, the first Father's Day was celebrated in Spokane. The rose was selected as the official Father's Day flower, and some suggest that people wear a white rose to honor a father who is deceased, and a red one for a father who is living. In 1972, Richard Nixon signed a presidential proclamation declaring the third Sunday of June as Father's Day.

Today, Father's Day is another day for greeting card companies to rejoice, and sales of the most popular gifts for Dad (shirts, ties, and electric razors) increase considerably. Perhaps most telling of Dad's perpetual role in the eyes of their children, though, is the fact that more collect calls are recorded on Father's Day then on any other day of the year!


History of Mother's day

Contrary to popular belief, Mother's Day was not conceived and fine-tuned in the boardroom of Hallmark. The earliest tributes to mothers date back to the annual spring festival the Greeks dedicated to Rhea, the mother of many deities, and to the offerings ancient Romans made to their Great Mother of Gods, Cybele. Christians celebrated this festival on the fourth Sunday in Lent in honor of Mary, mother of Christ. In England this holiday was expanded to include all mothers and was called Mothering Sunday.

In the United States, Mother's Day started nearly 150 years ago, when Anna Jarvis, an Appalachian homemaker, organized a day to raise awareness of poor health conditions in her community, a cause she believed would be best advocated by mothers. She called it "Mother's Work Day."

Fifteen years later, Julia Ward Howe, a Boston poet, pacifist, suffragist, and author of the lyrics to the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," organized a day encouraging mothers to rally for peace, since she believed they bore the loss of human life more harshly than anyone else.

In 1905 when Anna Jarvis died, her daughter, also named Anna, began a campaign to memorialize the life work of her mother. Legend has it that young Anna remembered a Sunday school lesson that her mother gave in which she said, "I hope and pray that someone, sometime, will found a memorial mother's day. There are many days for men, but none for mothers."

Anna began to lobby prominent businessmen like John Wannamaker, and politicians including Presidents Taft and Roosevelt to support her campaign to create a special day to honor mothers. At one of the first services organized to celebrate Anna's mother in 1908, at her church in West Virginia, Anna handed out her mother's favorite flower, the white carnation. Five years later, the House of Representatives adopted a resolution calling for officials of the federal government to wear white carnations on Mother's Day. In 1914 Anna's hard work paid off when Woodrow Wilson signed a bill recognizing Mother's Day as a national holiday.

At first, people observed Mother's Day by attending church, writing letters to their mothers, and eventually, by sending cards, presents, and flowers. With the increasing gift-giving activity associated with Mother's Day, Anna Jarvis became enraged. She believed that the day's sentiment was being sacrificed at the expense of greed and profit. In 1923 she filed a lawsuit to stop a Mother's Day festival, and was even arrested for disturbing the peace at a convention selling carnations for a war mother's group. Before her death in 1948, Jarvis is said to have confessed that she regretted ever starting the mother's day tradition.

Despite Jarvis's misgivings, Mother's Day has flourished in the United States. In fact, the second Sunday of May has become the most popular day of the year to dine out, and telephone lines record their highest traffic, as sons and daughters everywhere take advantage of this day to honor and to express appreciation of their mothers


History of Basant

In sanskrit Vasant (Basant) means spring and Panchami is the fifth day of the fortnight of waxing moon (Shukla Paksha) in the Hindu month of Magh, January-February of English calendar.

In the Vedas the day of Basant Panchami is dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati. It is not a national holiday in India but the schools are closed and the students participate in decoration and arrangement of the worship place. A few weeks before the celebration, schools become active in organizing various annual competitions of music, debate, sports and other activities. Prizes are distributed on the day of Basant Panchami. Many schools organize cultural activities in the evening of the Saraswati Puja day when parents and other community members attend the functions to encourage the children.Sarasvati is the goddess of learning. Sarasvati bestows the greatest wealth to humanity, the wealth of knowledge.

In the Vedas the prayer for Sarasvati depicts her as a white lady in white dress bedecked with white flowers and white pearls, sitting on a white lotus, which is blooming in a wide stretch of water. She holds Veena, a string-instrument, like Sitar, for playing music. The prayer finally concludes, "Oh Mother Sarasvati remove the darkness (ignorance) of my mind and bless me with the eternal knowledge." The Vedas describe Sarasvati as a water deity, goddess of a river of the same name. According to popular belief Sarasvati, originating from the Himalayas, flowed southeast, ultimately meeting the Ganges at Prayag, near the confluence of Yamuna. Hence the place is called Triveni. In due time this course of water petered away.

The mythological history of Sarasvati associates her with the holy rituals performed on the banks of the river Sarasvati. She is worshipped as a goddess of speech, attributed to the formation of Vach (words), invention of Sanskrit language and composition of hymns.


History of Karbala


It is a common phenomenon that the fame enjoyed by a person is seldom in proportion to his real greatness. Strange as it may seem, the personages who reach the highest pitch of Grandeur, sanctity and fame are associated with legends rather than historical facts. In view of this experience, Ibn Khaldun, a philosophical historian, laid down a general principle that the more an incident becomes popular the more a network of unfounded tales and stories is woven around it. The German poet Goethe has stated the same truth in a different way. He says that when human greatness reaches its peak, it becomes a legend.

The important place Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) occupies in Islamic History is too well known and requires no elucidation. Subsequent to the period of the Holy Last Messenger’s true successors, the incident that had a powerful impact on the religious and political history of Islam is the tragic event of Hazrat Imam Husain’s Shahadat (martyrdom). It may not be an exaggeration to say that no tragic incident that has occurred in this world caused humanity to shed tears so profusely as this particular event. More than thirteen hundred years have passed since this soul-stirring event in Islamic history and still the month of Muharram brings to the mind of every Muslim a vivid remembrance of the noble sacrifice offered by Hazrat Imam Husain ibn Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anh).

In spite of this, how curious it is that a powerful and tragic event of great import has assumed the shape of a fable than a historical fact. If a fact-finder wishes to study this event in the light of reliable evidences of history, in most of the cases he will be disappointed. The existing popular material on the subject is meant only for narration in religious assemblies exciting the feelings of sorrow and grief for the martyrs.

A few details of the event leading to the martyrdom of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) are given in this book. It should be borne in mind that this description does not seek to make a historical criticism, but it aims at presenting bare facts relating to Hazrat Imam Husain’s martyrdom in a chronological order.

Causes of Differences Between Imam Husain and Yazid

The Ahli-Bayt (members of the Holy Nabi’s family) had a valid claim to Khulafat for themselves. Soon after the death of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, his son Yazid declared himself the Khalif since he had been nominated a successor to Mu’awiyah during his lifetime. Yazid demanded allegiance from Hazrat Husain ibn 'Ali (Radiyallahu ‘anh). As the nomination to Caliphate was contrary to the spirit of the Islamic constitution, Hazrat Husain ibn 'Ali (Radiyallahu ‘anh) was averse to it and he, therefore, refused to take the oath of allegiance in favor of Yazid.

Khalif Hazrat 'Ali (Radiyallahu ‘anh) declared Kufa as the Capital of Caliphate. Consequently a large number of supporters of Ahli-Bayt were gathered there. They invited Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) to Kufa and assured their support to him. Hazrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) deputed his cousin Hazrat Muslim bin 'Aqil (Radiyallahu ‘anh) for obtaining bay’ah (allegiance) from the residents of Kufa and himself started preparation for undertaking a journey to Kufa.

Suggestions of Friends

All the well wishers, friends and relatives who knew the intention of Hazrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) were extremely perturbed and dissuaded him from doing so, reminding him of the proverbial infidelity and fickle-mindedness of the Kufans. They also knew the betraying mentality of Banu Umayya in the past. So they requested Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) to postpone his proposed journey to Kufa. Hazrat ‘Abdullah ibn 'Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “The people are extremely worried over your proposed journey to 'Iraq. The factual position may please be made known to the public.” Hazrat Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) replied, “I have taken a firm decision in this regard and I shall leave for Kufa within a day or so.” Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) instantly remarked: “May Allah protect you! Are you going amidst such people who have made their Amir helpless, crushed their opponents, and have taken over the control of the country? If so, you may gladly go to Kufa and if otherwise, their invitation to you is an open declaration of war. I am afraid that they may betray you.” Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) did not take notice of this humble submission of Hadrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) and stuck to his decision.

Enthusiasm of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh)

At the time of departure of Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh), Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) again approached him and requested him humbly to give up the decision of his proposed tour. He spoke very impatiently: “My dear cousin, I can't remain a silent spectator of your doom, the Kufans are munafiqeen (hypocrites) and cheaters; never trust them; better stay here in Hijaz; no body excels you, if Iraqis are sincere in calling you over there, ask them first to expel your opponents from the country. In case you have decided to leave Hijaz; you may better go to Yemen where there are many forts and impassable mountains, a vast territory having a big population loyal to the memory of your father. There you will be beyond the reach of your enemies. With Yemen as your base you can spread your message around by letters and messengers. I am sure such a course will bring you success.” Hazrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) replied, “O my cousin! I am really grateful for your kind sentiments and good wishes for me, but I have already made up my mind to go to Kufa.” Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) further requested: “if you are not going to accede to my request, better leave the women and children here, I apprehend that you may not be slain before their eyes just as Hazrat Uthman (Radiyallahu ‘anh) was assassinated in the presence of the members of his family.” Hazrat Ibn ‘Abbas (Radiyallahu ‘anh) remained silent for a moment and then said: “Had it been possible that a gathering of the people over here could prevent you from your intention, I would have arranged it just now.” However Hazrrat Imam Husain (Radiyallahu ‘anh) adhered to his Scheduled program.

A letter from Abdullah bin Ja’far (radiyallahu ‘anh)

Likewise a number of people appealed Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) to change his decision. One of his cousins ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far (radiyallahu ‘anh) wrote to him a letter from Madinah, which reads:

“I beseech you in the name of Allah to desist from the implementation of your plan for it entails your death and destruction for your family and companions. Your death will extinguish the light of earth; at the present you are the beacon-light of faith and the center of the hopes of the Mu’mineen. Don't make haste in undertaking the journey.”

A letter from Umar bin Sa’id bin al-Aas, The Governor of Madinah

Hazrat Abdullah ibn Ja’far (radiyallahu ‘anh) even approached ‘Umar bin Sa'id bin al-Aas, the Governor of Madinah and requested him to apprise Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) of the factual position through a letter. ‘Umar directed him to draft a letter on which he will affix a seal. Thus ‘Abdullah (radiyallahu ‘anh) wrote a letter on behalf of the Governor which reads:

“I pray to Allah to keep you away from the path where there is a danger to your life and may guide you to the way of salvation. I have come to know that you are leaving for Iraq; I beseech you not to undertake such a mission for I am afraid that a disastrous calamity is awaiting you there, I am sending Abdullah ibn Ja’far bin Sa’id (radiyallahu ‘anh) to you; please return with him; there is peace and tranquillity for you over here; may Allah protect you for He is the Best Protector and Sustainer.”
Still Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) stuck to his decision.

Meeting with Fardhuq

Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) left Makka for Iraq along with the members of his family, including all men, women and children. While on his way he met a well-known poet Fardhuq at a place called Saffah. When interrogated by Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) about the people of Kufa, the poet answered: “Their hearts are with you, but their swords are with the Umayyads.” “You are right,” remarked the Imam but he said: “The matter now rests with Allah, His Will will be done, His Commandments are issued every moment, If His Will is favorable to us we will praise Him. If His Will is contrary to our expectations, we will earn the reward of our patience and resignation.”

Persistent Requests of the Relatives of Muslim bin ‘Aqil

On reaching a place named Dharud, it was learnt that the emissary of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) Muslim bin ‘Aqil (radiyallahu ‘anh) was executed publicly by Ubaidullah bin Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, and nobody had taken the least notice of it. On hearing this sad news Imam recited, “Innaa lillahi wa innaa ilayhi raa-ji’oon.” (from Allah we came and to Allah we shall return).

Meanwhile some of his companions again pleaded, “We beg you in the name of Allah, to abandon this journey and return without moving further, for we cannot rely upon Kufans; they are not faithful to you.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) made a pause for a moment and began to ponder over the situation, whether he should continue the journey or abandon it. At the same time all the relatives of Hazrat Muslim bin 'Aqil (radiyallahu ‘anh) rose and said, “We shall never return, ‘In the Name of Allah’ we shall avenge the murder of our brother or die in the attempt.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) cast a glance over his companions and with a cold sigh he spoke, “There is no charm in life after him.”

The Host Dispurses

At the outset of the journey a large number of Bedouins had joined the convoy; they expected a grand reception for Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) at Kufa and provision for immense facilities for the entourage by Kufans having all knowledge about it, the Imam addressed to them, “O people! I have received very disappointing and dreadful news from Kufa; Muslim bin ‘Aqil, Hani bin ‘Urwa, and Abdullah bin Baqter have been assassinated; those who were to be trusted proved unfaithful; Kufans have dismayed us; I would suggest now to disassociate yourselves from us and leave us alone at the Mercy of Allah; there shall not be the least resentment on our part.” Such an announcement made by Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), resulted in decrease in the strength of the entourage and there were left digitally counted members, majority of them were the family members.

Arrival of Hur bin Yazid

Imam Husain's party had advanced only a little distance beyond Qadsia, when Hur bin Yazid appeared with a force of 1,000 armed men and followed him and his men intending to keep a close watch on them till they came face to face with Ubaidullah bin Ziyad, governor of Iraq, and his men.

Imam Husain's Address

At a stop where the, members of the entourage performed Salat-ul-Zuhr, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) addressed them before the Salaah; he spoke:

“O people! Before you, and before Allah I have a reason for my arrival to this place, that I did not come over here at my own accord, but I have been invited by you people; and your letters with me stand a testimony to this effect. If you have gone back on the promises contained in your communications addressed to me and conveyed through messengers, I am willingly prepared to go back. You invited me time and again to lead you as an Imam. So I have arrived here. I would ask you for allegiance if you are true in your previous promises; in that case I shall be satisfied and shall go with you to the city.”

Hur and His Companions Offered Salaat Under the Imam’s Leadership

When the address was over; there prevailed a complete silence; none spoke about the address then people asked the Mu'adhdhin to call for the Iqama, meanwhile Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked Hur, whether he will arrange his Salaat separately. Hur replied that he himself and his men would make Salaat behind him, and they did so. The Asr Salaat were also performed at the same place by the friends and foes together. After the Salaat, Imam delivered the second Khutbah (sermon).

Imam Husain's second khutbah

After Salaat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) delivered the second khutbah; he spoke:

“You will please Allah if you adhere to righteousness and support the claim of the right person. We the members of the Holy Nabi’s family have a stronger claim to Caliphate than others. They rule over you tyranni-cally. If you dislike us and do not concede our right; if you have gone back on the promises contained in your communications addressed to me and conveyed through messengers, I am willingly prepared to go back.”

Letters from the citizens of Kufa

Hur asked Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) about the letters which Imam had mentioned in his discourse expressing his ignorance about such letters. The Imam (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked ‘Aqba bin Sam’an to bring the two bags which were full of letters sent by the people of Kufa. Hur told Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh): “We are not those people who wrote these letters to you.” He further explained, “I have been ordered by Ubaidullah bin Ziyad to take you before him.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) told him that his appearance before Ubaidullah bin Ziyad was not possible before his death.

He then ordered for departure to Makkah, but he was stopped by the opponents to do so. Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked Hur in anger, “Thy mother may curse you.” Hur replied, “Had these words been spoken by some one else, I would have replied him in the same manner, but alas! I can’t name your mother.” “What do you want of me,” asked Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). “I wish to take you before Ubaidullah bin Ziyad,” replied Hur. “But by Allah, I won’t go with you,” replied Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). “At all cost I have to follow you, until you reach Kufa, and I have no orders to fight against you,” argued Hur. “If you are not willing to go to Kufa better you choose some other way which may neither lead to Kufa nor Madinah, meanwhile I am writing a letter to Ibn Ziyad to find out a suitable way to avoid any conflict. It would be better if you too write a letter to Yazid or ‘Ubaidullah in this regard.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) agreed to the suggestion extended by Hur.

Another Discourse

At this stage Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) delivered another sermon; he spoke:

“O people! The Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) says that whoever comes across a ruler that perpetrates cruelty and transgresses the Divine limits, breaks the covenant made with Allah, violates the Nabi’s traditions and rules over the people with coercion, if he does not oppose that ruler with word and deed, Allah will not grant him a good abode in the life Hereafter. Look! They have become Shaitan’s followers and are opposing Allah’s Commandments. Corruption has appeared. They are violating the limits imposed by Allah Ta’ala. They are in illegal possession of booty. The lawful is made unlawful and unlawful is rendered lawful. I am the right person to prevent them from going astray and lead them to truth and justice. Your numerous letters were received and messengers approached me with the message of allegiance. You have pledged your word that you would not betray me, nor would you hand me over to my enemies. If you abide by your pledge, you will be on the right path. However, it is not beyond our expectation if you break the promise. You have meted out a similar treatment to my cousin. Whoever trusts you, is actually under the spell of illusion. Beware! You have already harmed yourself and even now you continue to harm yourself. You have lost your share and marred your fortune. Whoever breaks the promise, he will break it to the detriment of his own self. It may be that Allah will soon rescue me from your hands. As-Salaamu Alaikum wa rahmatullah wa Barakatuhu.”

Speech of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) at Another Place

At another place, he observed:
“You witness the existing state of affairs. The world has changed its colors. It is completely devoid of virtue. Only the sediment is left. Alas! Don’t you see that truth has been relegated to background. Falsehood is deliberately being acted upon. There is none who could prevent the wrong-doing. It is high time a believer should try to defend the truth for the sake of Allah. I wish to die a martyr’s death. It is an offense in itself to live with oppressors.”

Reply from Zaheer

Listening to this address, one named Zaheer bin al-Yaqin al-Jali from amongst the audience stood up as spoke as under:

“Ya Grandson of the Holy Nabi! May Allah be with you. We have listened to your discourse. By Allah! If the world were eternal and we were to live therein forever, even then we are prepared to give up our life for extending assistance to you. We should like to die with you rather than to lead an eternal life.”

Retort to Hur’s Threat

In the course of the journey, Hur had been repeatedly threatening Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) that if he waged war, he would surely be killed. Once roused to indignation, Sayyidina Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied: “Do you frighten me with death? Has cruelty gone to that extreme that you people intend to kill me? I am at a loss to understand in what terms I shall replay to you. I want to repeat the same words uttered by one of the Companions of the Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) while proceeding on Jihad in reply to a threat by his brother:

‘I am proceeding. Death does not mean humiliation for a brave person when his intention is genuine and he performs Jihad in the Cause of al-Islam.’”

Four Kufans’ Arrival

At a place known as ‘Azib-ul-Hijanat, four horsemen were seen coming from Kufa by Tarmah bin ‘Adi who was reciting the following verses:

“O my she-camel don’t be afraid of my scolding move forward with courage, before the dawn. Carry the pious travelers and go forth for the best voyage until the pious person may meet you. He is honorable, free, and warm-hearted; Allah has brought him for the performance of best deed. May Allah save him forever.”

On listening to these verses, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) spoke: “By Allah! I believe Allah will favor us; may I be killed or be a conqueror.” Hur bin Yazid told Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), “these people are from Kufa and they are not your companions, I shall stop them or I shall ask them to go back.” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) reminded him of his promise, “You have already committed yourself to me that you will not fight against me till a reply is received from Ibn Ziyad. Moreover though these people have not come with me yet they are my companions. If you showed any sort of atrocity towards them I shall fight against you.” This made Hur calm and quiet.

Conditions at Kufa

Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) ascertained from persons arrived from Kufa about the situation in the city. They replied at the time of their departure the citizens were being persuaded through bribe. At heart they were for Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) but they would draw their swords against him.

Assassination of the Envoy

They further said, “The messenger, earlier sent by you named Qais bin Masher, had been killed by Ubaidullah bin Ziyad.” This news shocked Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and with tearful eyes he expresed:

“Some of them already died and others are awaiting the death. But stand firmly on the right path and do not change their minds.”

The Imam prayed: “O Allah open the doors of Paradis for them and let us enter the place of Thy blessings and reward and gather together there.”

Tarmah bin ‘Adi’s Offe

At this juncture, one of Imam Husain’s well-wishers, Tarmah bin Adi, said:
“By Allah! I am making a keen observation, but I see noby who may stand by your side. Death seems to be inevitable for you, if the people who are following rush upon you. I never saw such a big crown anywhere as I witnessed behind Kufa. They all have assembled to fight against one individual—Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). I advise you not to move an inch further. If you want to go to a place where you would be quite safe from enemies, you may follow me. I shall take you to my mountain Aaja. Within a period of less than ten days, you will find 20,000 armed strong men belonging to a tribe Tai arrayed before you. As long as they are vigilant, no body will have the courage to look at you with an evil intent.”

Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) invoked Allah’s blessing on him for his offer and said that he had a commitment with the men following him and in view of this, he could not go a step forward. He said, “Nobody could predict how the enmity between us and our enemies will end.”

The Dream

Now Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was sure that he was heading towards death. At the time of leaving the place called Qassar ban Maqtal, Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) had a nap. Suddenly he awakened and said loudly: “Innaa lillahi wa innaa ilayhi raa-ji’oon. Alhamdulillahi Rabbil-‘Alameen.” He repeated these verses thrice; his son ‘Ali asked him as to why he recited these verses. The Imam replied, “O son! I had just taken a short nap, meanwhile I saw a horse rider who was moving ahead and expressing words: “People move onward and the death too moves with them.” I am sure this is the prediction of our death which is being conveyed to us.” Ali spoke: “Are we not the righteous; may Allah save you from the doomsday.” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied, “No doubt, we are the righteous one, that is why we should not fear death.” He was the son of Sayyidina Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) who faced martyrdom at the battlefield of Karbala and later on became known as Ali Akbar.

Ibn Ziyad’s Letter

Next day, Imam Husain rode on horseback and posted his men at strategic points for defense. Hur took exception to it. A tussle continued between the two for a long time. Eventually, an armed rider was seen coming from Kufa. He presented communication addressed to Hur by Ibn Ziyad, governor of Kufa, which reads as follows:

“Do not allow Husain to stay at any place. He should not be permitted to get down anywhere except in an open space. See that he does not take refuge either in a fort or a fertile piece of land. My messenger will remain with you to see how far you comply with my order.”

Hur informed Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) about the contents of the governor’s letter and told him that he was helpless, as such, he could only allow him to encamp in an open place in a desert.

Zaheer suggested that a fight with the force that existed at that time was far easier than the massive army that was expected to arrive later.

Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) disagreed, because he did not like to initiate war.

Zaheer then said: “Let us encamp in this village which is situated by the side of river Euphrates.” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) enquired its name. Zaheer repled: “Its name is ‘Aqr which means fruitless. On hearing this Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) remarked: “May Allah save us from ‘Aqr.”

Arrival at Karbala

Eventually, on the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH, Sayyidina Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) with his entourage camped at a forlorn place known as Karbala which was situated at a long distance from river Euphrates with a hill in between the two.

Umar bin Sa’d’s Arrival

Next day, Umar bin Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas arrived with an army of 4,000 Kufans. Ubaidullah bin Ziyad deputed him on this expedition by force. Umar never wanted that the situation should take a serious turn. He tried that the matter should amicably be settled. No sooner did he arrive at Karbala, than he sent a messenger to Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) inquiring the reason of his arrival. In reply Imam Husain stated that the Kufans had invited him. He further added that in case they disliked his arrival, he was prepared to go back.

Ibn Ziyad’s Stern Attitude

Umar bin Sa’d was delighted at this reply and became optimistic. He addressed a letter to Ubaidullah bin Ziyad explaining the position. In reply, he issued the following instructions:

“Ask Husain first to take bay’ah to Yazid along with his companions and then we shall see what is to be done… See that water is not supplied to Husain and his companions. They should not have even a drop of water just as Uthmân bin Affan was deprived of it.”

Friction on Water

Being constrained by Ubaidullah’s order Umar bin Sa’d posted 500 sepoys to guard the bank of the river. Water supply was stopped to Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and his party (radiyallahu ‘anhum). As such, Imam Husain ordered his brother ‘Abbas bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anh) to fetch water from the river under escort of thirty horsemen and twenty sepoys. Arriving at the bank, they were resisted by the guard commander Umar bin al-Hajjaj. A regular struggle ensued. Eventually, Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) succeeded in getting twenty leather bags filled with water.

Imam Husain Meets Umar bin Sa’d

In the evening, Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) sent a messenger to Umar bin Sa’d to talk in the night. They both set off from their respective tents each followed by twenty horsemen and met midway. They had a talk in camera till late in the night. Although the talk was quite confidential the lobby circle revealed that Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) suggested to Umar that they should leave their arms at Karbala and both would go to Yazid. Umar replied that if he acted according to this suggestion, his house would be destroyed. To this, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied that he would have it reconstructed. Umar said that his entire property would be confiscated. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) guaranteed that he would compensate from his own property situated in Hijaz. But Umar never agreed to it.

Husain’s Three Conditions

Subsequently they had three more interviews with each other. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) offered three alternatives:

  1. Let him go back to the place he had came from;
  2. Let him have his case decided by Yazid himself;
  3. He may be allowed to go to a border place.

Umar’s Letter to Ibn Ziyad

After protracted negotiations, Umar bin Sa’d wrote to Ibn Ziyad again in the following terms:

“Allah has extinguished the fire of mischief. He has resolved the differences and created unity. He had set right the community’s case. Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) held out a promise to accepty any of the three alternatives. Therein lies your as well as the community’s welfare.”

Shimr’s opposition

This letter created a favorable reaction on Ibn Ziyad. He appreciated Umar’s efforts and said that the proposal was acceptable. Opposing the proposal, the wretch Shimr bin Zil Joushan said:

“Husain is now in our grip. If he escapes without taking the bay’ah, he might gain respect and power and comparatively you may be rendered weak and helpless. It is advisable that he is kept under watch until he surrenders himself. I am told that Husain and Umar bin Sa’d hold secret talks during the whole night.”

Ibn Ziyad’s Reply

This advice was approved and Shimr was deputed within a letter containing the following text:

“If Husain surrenders himself with all his companions, there should be no war and he should be sent to me alive. If he does not agree, there is no other alternative except war.”
“Shimr has been instructed that as long as Umar complies with my orders, the former should obey him, otherwise, he should remove Umar and take over the command of the army. Husain should be murdered and his head be sent over to me.”

In this letter, Umar was severely admonished with a warning that he was not deputed to defend Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and communicate recommendations in his favor. Further, the letter contained the following specific instructions:

“My orders are clear. If he surrenders himself, he should be sent to me alive. In case he refuses, he should be attacked unhesitatingly. Shed his blood and disfigure his body, as he deserves it. After killing get his body trampled by horses, be cause he is a rebel and has deserted the community. I have resolved that if he is murdered, all this should be done. If you obey my orders you will be eligible for a reward and if you contravene then you will be dismissed.”

Shimr Zil Joushan and Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)

It should be remembered that the paternal aunt of Shimr, Umm Banin bint Kharam, was the wife of Hazrat Ali (Karramallahu ta’ala wajhah) and whose off-springs were ‘Abbas, Abdullah, Ja’far, and Uthman and all the four brothers were accompanying Imam Husain in this encounter. Thus Shimr was the paternal cousin of all the four brothers and also of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). He requested Ibn Ziyad for the protection of his above relatives which was granted to them. He therefore called all the four brothers and said: “You are my relatives from the paternal side. I have secured safety and protection for you.” But they replied: “Curse be upon you! You give us protection but there is no such safety for the grandson of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim).”

Shimr handed over the letter of governor of Kufa to Umar bin Sa’d and he reluctantly agreed to comply with the orders.

Army’s Preliminary Movement

After Salat-ul-Asr, Umar bin Sa’d ordered his army to move. From the opposite side, Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) appeared with twenty horsemen. Umar apprised him of the reply he received from Ubaidullah bin Ziyad. Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) returned to convey the same to Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). In the meantime, there was an exchange of dialogues between the representatives of the rival parties which was secured by the narrators.

Exchange of Words Between Men of Rival Forces

From Imam Husain’s side, Habib bin Mazahar came forward and said: “The worst people in the sight of Allah Ta’ala are those who present themselves before Him, while their hands are stained with the blood of the descendants of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) and the pious persons of Kufa.”

Urwa bin Qais from the opposite side replied: “Boast as much as you can. Carry on propaganda about your own piety and purification.”

To this, Zaheer said: “Allah Himself has purified these persons and led them to the right path. Fear Allah and do not be an accomplice to the wrong-doers by killing innocent persons.”

Urwa replied: “O Zaheer! You were not the supporter of this family. Were you not a supporter of Hazrat Uthmân (radiyallahu ‘anh) earlier than today?”

Zaheer replied: “No doubt, it is true. I neither wrote any letter to Imam Husain nor sent any messenger to him but this journey had gathered us together. I saw him; that reminded me of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) and also his love and affection for Husain. When I found that he was confronting with a mighty enemy, Allah put love in my heart for him. It is all due to my love for the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) that I have resolved to help him and to safeguard the very right of Allah and His Holy Last Messenger (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) which you have neglected.”

When Imam Husain came to know about the contents of Ibn Ziyad’s letter, he said that confrontation might be avoided on that day, so that they might be able to pray to Allah Ta’ala and ask for His Forgiveness. He added, “Allah knows how much I am fond of Allah’s ‘Ibadah and reciting Ayat from His Book.” This message being conveyed, the hostile army retreated.

Imam Husain’s Grief and Faithfulness of His Companions

After the retreat of forces, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) addressed the assembly of his supporters:
“Alhamdulillah. I am grateful to Him in an hour of distress as well as in comfort. I am thankful to Allah Who bestowed Nubuwwah on our family; gave understanding of the Holy Qur’ân; favored us with the knowledge of Deen; and blessed us with the faculties of seeing, hearing, and of taking a lesson. Thereafter, O People, I am not aware if there are persons who are better than my colleagues or more sympathetic and comforter than my Ahli-Bayt. O people! May Allah reward thee. I believe that tomorrow will be the final day of decision between me and those of the enemies. After a deep consideration, I have come to the conclusion that you should disperse quietly. After taking my life, the enemy would not bother about others. Hence I advise you to disperse along with my family members.”
On hearing this all of the Ahli-Bayt were extremely aggrieved. Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “Why is it so? Do you want that we should survive after your death? Allah may not keep us alive to see that day.

The relatives of Hazrat Muslim bin Aqil (radiyallahu ‘anh) were advised to go back, as Hazrat Muslim’s murder was too big a sacrifice.

They unanimously replied, “If we disperse, people will accuse of that we deserted our Sheikh, leader, and cousin. They will criticize that we never threw an arrow, never used the spear, nor wielded the sword. Never! We shall never do it. We would sacrifice our property, life, and progeny. We shall fight along with you. We shall meet the same fat as yours. Allah may not keep us alive after you quite the world.”

Imam Husain’s other companions also stood up and emphatically assured him of the cooperation at the risk of their life. Muslim bin ‘Ausja Asdi stood up and said: “Should we leave you alone? By Allah, we should never leave you alone. I shall pierce my spear in the chests of enemies. I shall wield the sword and in case I was de-sworded I shall throw stones on the enemies so long as death embraces me.”

Sa’d bin Abdullah al-Hanafi said: “By Allah, I shall not leave you alone unless they kill me, burn me in fire and reduce me to ashes and blew it in the air. I am ready to meet the same fate seventy times till I diminish in your support.”

Zaheer said: “By Allah, I am ready to be cut by a saw a thousand times than to leave you alone. I shall be fortunate if I shall be able to save you and members of your family at the cost of my life.

Morbid Anxiety of Hazrat Zainab

Hazrat Imam Ali bin Husain Zain-ul-‘Abidin (radiyallahu ‘anh) reported that the very night of the following morning when my father was assassinated I was ailing and my aunt Hazrat Zainab1 (radiyallahu ‘anha) was looking after me; suddenly my father called his colleagues inside his tent. At that time the slave of Hazrat Abu Dharr Gheffari (radiyallahu ‘anh) named Hawi was smearing the sword and my father was reciting the following verses:

“O world! How deceitful friend thou are. How many people are killed day and night by your hand. But the time does not spare any one and never accepts compensation and everything is in the control of Allah. Every living creature is aheading towards death.”
Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) repeated these verses four times. My heart was filled with grief. Tears were about to tumble down from my eyes by I stopped them.

From the march of events Imam Husain’s ailing son, Ali Zain-ul-‘Abidin came to the conclusion that the calamity was inevitable. When Imam Husain’s sister, Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) came to know about it, she started shrieking and crying. Imam Husain tried to pacify her with exhortation, “What is all this sister? I am afraid our faith and endurance are overpowered by our passions and devilish forces.” Sayyidah Zainab replied how could she control herself when Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was killing himself with his own hands. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) answered that such was Allah’s Will. This reply added much to Sayyidah Zainab’s distress and she went out of control due to excessive grief. Witnessing this, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) made a lengthy speech on Sabr (patience and perseverance). He observed:

“Sister! Fear from Allah. Take solace from Allah’s Mercy. Death is destined for each and every living being. Even those living in heaven cannot lead an eternal life. When every thing is mortal in this world, why so much distress and grief with the thought of death. For every Muslim, the life of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) provides the perfect model. What does this model teach us? It teaches us to have forbearance and perseverance. It also teaches us to rely on Allah and to reconcile ourselves to the Will of Allah Ta’ala. We should not deviate from that teaching.”

A Night of Prayers

Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and his companions passed the whole night in offering prayer, invoking forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala, weeping and crying. A division of the enemy’s cavalry had been patrolling round Imam Husain’s camp. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was reciting the following Ayats of the Holy Qur’an loudly:

“And let not those who disbelieve imagine that the rein We give them bodeth good unto their souls. We only give then rein that they may grow in sinfulness. And theirs will be a shameful torment. It is not (the purpose) of Allah to leave you in your present state till He shall separate the wicked from the good.” (Surah Aal-e-Imran, Ayats 178-179)

10th Muharram, War Begins

On the 10th of Muharram, Friday, Umar bin Sa’d set out with his army. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) too posted his men at strategic points. His army consisted of only 72 men; 32 horsemen and 40 foot-soldiers. The right wing of the army was given in the charge of Zaheer while Habib bin Mazahar was appointed Commander of the left wing of the army. The flag was held by Imam Husain’s brother, Hazrat ‘Abbas bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anh). A trench was dug behind the camp which was filled with fire so that the enemy could not attack from the rear.

Shimr’s Absurdity

Shimr who went past the camp on a galloping horse noticed fire and cried aloud, “Husain! Did you accpet fire before the Day of Resurrection?” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) retorted, “O son of a Shepherd! You deserve fire more than any one else.”

One of Imam Husain’s men, Muslim bin Ausja, sought permission to shoot an arrow at him, as he was standing at a point blank range. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) did not allow him to do so as he did not want to initiate war.

Imam Husain Raised His Hands in Du’a

As the enemy’s forces advanced, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) raised his hands praying to Allah:
“O Allah, I trust upon You in my hour of distress and calamity. Thou are my protector in every misfortune. I have lost my heart due to my miseries. Allah my prudence has failed. Friends have turned foes. Enemy is rejoicing. I have sought only Thy help. Thou are the Master of every fortune. Thou are kind. Today I beseech Thy help.”

Imam Husain’s Discourse to Enemy

When the army approached closer, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) mounted a camel, kept the Holy Qur’an in front and addressed the enemy forces in the following words:

“O people! Listen to me. Do not be rash. Let me admonish you. Let me say a few words in my justification and let me explain the reason of my arrival here. If my excuse is reasonable and if you can accept it, do justice in my case. You would be lucky if you desist from taking arms against me. Even after hearing me, if you refuse to accept my excuse, I will be ready for you. Rush upon me all at once. Do not allow a moment’s respite. Whatever be the eventual outcome, I repose confidence in Allah Who supports righteous men.”

When this speech was heard by the female members of the Ahli-Bayt there began hue and cry inside the tents. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) asked his brother Hazrat Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) and his son Ali to go and console them for they had yet to weep a lot. Thereafter, he remarked: “May Allah bless a long life to Abdullah ibn Abbas.” The narrator states: “It was due to the fact that Abdullah ibn Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh) suggested Hazrat Imam Husain at Madinah leaving the women at home but the Imam did not pay any heed to it. Now when he heard their hue and cry, it reminded him of the submission of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anh).” He resumed his speech:

“O people! Remember my lineage. Pause to think for a while who am I. Take stock in your conscience! Is it fair for you to kill me and discard the respect due to me? Am I not the son of your Nabi’s daughter, and the son of his cousin? Was the leader of Shuhadaa, Hamza (radiyallahu ‘anh) not my father’s uncle? Is Ja’far al-Tayyar (radiyallahu ‘anh) not my uncle? Don’t you remember the famous tradition of the Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim), ‘Sayyids (Chiefs) of the youths of Paradise,’ concerning me and my brother? If my statement is true, it is certainly true, as since the time I am conscious of myself, I have not uttered a lie. Tell me is it right for you to receive me with unsheathed swords? If you don’t believe in my word, there are persons among you who can testify to the correctness of my statement. Ask Jabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari and Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). Inquire from Sahl bin Sa’d Sa’di and Zaid bin Arqam (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). They can tell you wheter they heard the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) saying this about me and my brother or not. Should not this fact prevent you from shedding my blood? By Allah, there is no grandson of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) on the surface of the globe at this time except myself. I am the direct descendant and grandson of your Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). Do you want to kill me, because I have taken the life of any one? Did I shed anyone’s blood? Have I usurped the wealth of anyone? Tell me what is the matter? What is my fault?”

Kufan’s reply

Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) repeatedly asked this question, but nobody answered. At last, he called out, by name, the prominent persons of Kufa and inquired whether they had not written to him: “Fruits are ripe, the soil has become green and the canals are overflowing. If you come, you will come to the great army of your own; come soon.”

Thereupon those persons opened their mouth and said that they had never written to that effect. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) expressed surprise at it and cried out, “what a blatant lie.” Then Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) again called out loudly, “O people! As you dislike me, it is better that I am released, I shall go back.”

Humiliation is Unacceptable

At this juncture, one of the Kufans named Qais bin Ash’ath said: “Is it not advisable that you should surrender yourself to your cousins? They will mete out the treatment to you worthy of your position. You will receive no harm from them.”

To this, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) answered, “All of you are tarred with the same brush. O man! Do you want that Bani Hashim should demand ransom for one more life, in addition to that of Muslim bin Aqil? No, I shall not surrender myself to them with humiliation.”

Zaheer’s Address to Kufans

Zaheer advanced towards the enemy on his horse and shouted: “O Kufans, fear from the wrath of Allah. It is a duty of every Muslim to advise his brother Muslim. Look! We are all Muslims till this time. We believe in the same Deen and the same Shari’ah. So long as the swords are unsheathed, you deserve our advice and well-wishes. But when the swords are drawn the mutual respect will vanish and shall become two rival groups. Look! Allah has test our faithfulness towards the descendants of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). We call you to the love for Ahli-Bayt and to the rivalry of Ubaidullah bin Ziyad. Believe you would gain nothing from these rulers. They would make you blind; they would cut your hands; they would disfigure your faces; they would hang you and would kill the pious men one by one; they have already done this. The incidents of Hajar bin ‘Adi and Hani bin ‘Urwa have not become so old that you have forgotten them.”

On hearing this, Kufans began to abuse Zaheer and offered praise for Ibn Ziyad. “By Allah, we shall not go back unless and until we kill Husain and his companions or produce them before Amir,” was their reply.

Zaheer replied: “Well! If the son of Sayyidah Fatimat-uz-Zahra (Radiy Allahu ta’ala ‘anha) is not comparable with the son of Sumiyya (Ibn Ziyad) you should pay this much regard to the progeny of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) that you would not kill him. Let him talk with his cousin Yazid bin Mu’awiyah and settle the issue. I swear by Allah that it is not necessary to shed the blood of Husain to please Yazid.”

Hur Joins Imam Husain’s Army

It is narrated by Adi bin Harmla that when Ibn Sa’d ordered his army to advance, Hur asked him whether he really wanted to fight against Imam Husain. Ibn Sa’d replied, “Yes, a battle would be fought in which heads will be cut and hands will be amputated from shoulders.” Listening to this, Hur left his own place and proceeded slowly towards Imam Husain’s camp. One of his tribe’s men, Muhajir bin Aws, inquired whether he wanted to attack Imam Husain. Hur kept quiet. Suspecting him due to his reticence, Muhajir said, “I never found you in such a state during any war. If I am asked to name the bravest man in Kufa, I can point out none except you. But what are you doing now?”

Hur grew serious and replied, “By Allah, I am making a choice between Hell and Paradise. By Allah, I have selected Paradise, no matter if I am cut to pieces.” With those words, he whipped his horse and joined Imam Husain’s army. He presented himself before Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and said: “O Grandson of the Holy Nabi! I am the same unfortunate person who prevented you from going back. I pursued you along the way and compelled you to encamp at this place. I never suspected that these people will not concede your terms and will go to such an extreme in your matter. By Allah, had I known that they will act in this way, I would have never done what I did earlier. I am ashamed of the misdeed I have committed and come to you for repentance. I want to sacrifice myself and I think that would serve the purpose of atonement.” Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) very kindly invoked divine blessings for him and said, “May Allah accept your repentance and forgive you. As your mother has named you Hur, you are a free man and Insha-Allah you will remain free both in this world and in the Hereafter.”

Hur’s Address to the Enemy

Hur then addressed the enemies and said that they should have accepted any of the conditions offered by Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), so that Allah might save them from an ordeal. They said that his question would be answered by their Commander Umar bin Sa’d. Umar said that he himself wished to accept this offer, but his proposal was rejected. Thereafter, Hur made a passionate speech and put the Kufans to shame for not abiding by their promise. In reply, they started shooting arrows. Hur was forced to return to the camp.

Battle Starts

When Imam Husain’s sincere efforts to bring round the enemy failed, encounter became inevitable. Umar bin Sa’d strung his bow and shot an arrow towards the camp of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) saying: “Be witness! I have shot the first arrow.”

Yasar and Salam, the slaves of Ziyad bin Umayya and Ubaidullah bin Ziyad came forward and challenged for a single combat, as was the ancient custom of warfare in Arab. From the Husaini forces, Habib bin Mazahar and Barbar bin Hasir volunteered themselves to meet this challenge by Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) did not permit them to fight. Then Abdullah bin Amir al-Kalbi stood up and sought permission to go out. This man came from Kufa along with his wife to support Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). He was a dark-complexioned tall statured man with broad shoulders and strong limbs and was looking like a warrior in all respects. Having a look at him, the Imam was pleased to observe that he was a true warrior and gladly permitted him to meet the challenge. In a few brief exchanges, Abdullah put his both rivals to death. His wife Umm Wahab stood close by with a staff in her hand inciting her husband to fight. Then suddenly she became so passionate that she started advancing towards the battlefield. Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was deeply impressed by her enthusiasm and said: “May Allah reward you for support to Ahli-Bayt, but fighting is not meant for ladies.”

Spears Straightened

After that, right wing army of Ibn Sa’d launched an attack and as they drew nearer, front line of the Husaini forces knelt down and straightened their spears towards the horses. Horses were frightened. The enemy mounted troopers could not advance and were repulsed with heavy losses.

General Attack

Later on, ensued a full-fledged battle. In the beginning the chivalrous men from either side came out in response to the challenge and fight with each other. Every challenger of the rival army who came forward was killed by the partisans of Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). On seeing this discouraging start Umar bin al-Hajjaj who was in command of the enemy’s right wing, shouted:

“O fools! First realize to whom you are fighting with. These people are not afraid of death! In this way you will be killed one by one. They are but a handful of souls. You can kill them even with stones.”

Umar bin Sa’d approved of the suggestion, and disallowing individual duels ordered for a general attack. Both the sides came to grips and then ensued a hand to hand fight.

After some time when the fighting was stopped it was found that a Husaini brave hero Muslim bin Awsja was writhing in blood and sand. Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) ran towards him. He was still breathing. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) lamented with a deep respiration saying, “Muslim! May Allah shower his choicest blessings on you:

“Some of them have already died and others are awaiting death. But stand firmly on the right path and do not change their minds.”
Muslim bin Awsja was the first martyr from the side of Husaini forces in this battle.

Horses Rendered Useless

After the right wing, the left wing also joined in attack with Shimr as its Commander. This attack too was very severe but the Husaini right wing resisted it manfully. There were only thirty-two horsemen in this wing but wherever they struck they caused a great loss to the enemy. Soon the powerful enemy realized that with the present strength of forces at its disposal it could not achieve the desired goal. They, therefore, sent for reinforcement and soon five hundred archers came to their succor. They, on their arrival, started shooting arrows at the horsemen crippling their horses and forcing them to dismount.

Hur’s Gallantry

Ayyub bin Musharrah reported that he had himself injured the horst of Hur bin Yazid, piercing it with his arrows. Hur bin Yazid jumped to the ground. He was holding a sword in his hand and he was looking like a lion. His sword was moving rampantly and he was reciting the following verses:

“It does not matter if you have made my horse useless. I am of noble blood and am braver than a fierce lion.”

Tents Burnt

The fighting was in its full swing. It was now midday but neither side seemed to have gained the upper hand. The reason was that the Husaini army had pitched the tents at one place and the enemy could only attack from one side. When Umar bin Sa’d realized that he could not succeed in this way he deputed some of his men to uproot the tents. Only four or five men from the Husaini army pushed them back. Failing in this attempt Umar bin Sa’d ordered his men to set the tents on fire. His soldiers rushed towards tents carrying fire in their hands. Husaini forces were perturbed due to this grave situation but Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “No matter, let them burn the tents. It will be better for us because they cannot attack from the rear.”

Assassination of Hazrat Umm Wahab

At this stage Zaheer bin al-Yaqin launched a severe attack on Shimr’s forces and put them to rout but this state did not obtain for long. In a short time the enemy gathered its strength. Now the helplessness of Husaini forces was evident. Several warriors and renowned leaders were killed one by one. Abdullah bin Amir al-Kalbi was one of them. His brave wife Umm Wahab was sitting in the battlefield and was wiping dust from the face of her martyred husband saying repeatedly: “Greetings to you for attaining an abode in the Paradise.” Shimr saw her and killed her (radiyallahu ‘anha).

Prayers Banned

Abu Thumama Amr bin Abdullah Samdi realized his helplessness and said to Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh): “Enemy is approaching fast. By Allah, I shall defend you even at the cost of my life. Enemy will not harm you as long as I am alive. However, it is my earnest desire to offer my Prayers before meeting my Rabb.” On hearing this Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) raised his head and said: “Ask the enemy to give us respite for offering Prayers.” But the enemy did not accede to their requests and the battle continued.

Martyrdom of Habib and Hur

It was a very tough time. The enemy had put in the battle its full force. Unfortunately, Habib bin Mazahar, Commander of the right wing of the Husaini forces, was also killed. It was a dead blow to the Husainis. The next came the turn of Hur bin Yazid who advanced straight into the enemy forces reciting the following verses with great enthusiasm:

“I have sworn no to be killed unless and until I have killed them. I shall die only while I am advancing. I shall inflict heavy casualties with my sword. I shall neither fear no shall I run away.”
He boldly attacked the enemy and eventually, sore and weary with fatal wounds, gave up his life.

Martyrdom of Zaheer

Now the Zuhr time was over. Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) offered Salat-ul-Khawf along with his companions. After the Salat the pressure of the enemy increased all of the more. On this occasion Zaheer bin al-Yaqin, Commander of the left wing, took command of the army and attacked the enemy reciting the following verses:

“I am Zaheer, son of al-Yaqin. I shall keep them away from Husain with the point of my sword.”

After dispersing the lines of rival forces he returned and putting his hand on Imam Husain’s shoulder recited the following verses:

“Advance, Allah has guided you to the right path. You will be meeting today with your grandfather, the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim), and Hasan, and Ali al-Murtaza, the young grave Ja’far al-Tayyar, and the living martyr Asadullah Hamza (radiyallahu ‘anhum).”

Then he turned towards the enemy and put a number of them to death until he himself was killed.

Bravery of the Ghiffari Brothers

Companions of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) now realized that it was quite impossible for them to stop the enemy. Therefore, they all decided to sacrifice themselves one by one. Accordingly, to Ghiffari brothers moved forward and began to fight with the enemy. While fighting they were reciting the following verses:

“Bani Ghaffar and tribes of Nazar have known fully well that we will cut the vicious people into pieces with our glittering swords. O people! Support the pious ones with they spears and they swords.”

Sacrifice of the Jabri Brothers

Thereafter two Jabri brothers came forward who were weeping bitterly. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) said to them: “O sons of my brother! Why are you weeping? By Allah, I believe you will be killed after a few minutes.” They replied that they were not shedding tears due to the danger to their lives, but it made them weep seeing that the enemy had surrounded them and they could do nothing to save him. Then both of them began to fight courageously chanting aloud: “As-Salaamu ‘alayka O’ Son of the Holy Nabi!” Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied: “Wa ‘alaykum-us-Salaam wa Rahmatullah.” At last they were also killed.

Martyrdom of Hanzala bin As’ad

After than Hanzal bin As’ad stood before the enemy shouting: “O people! I fear for you the same disaster as befell upon the nations of Aad and Thamud. I fear you may be destroyed. O’ People! Don’t slay Husain lest Allah should send calamity on you.” He fought manfully until he was martyred.

Ali Akbar’s Martyrdom

By now all the companions were killed one after the other. It was now the turn of the Bani Hashim and the family of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). First of all, Ali Akbar came into the battlefield and attacked the enemy, reciting the following verses:

“I am Ali bin Husain bin Ali. By the Rabb of Ka’bah, we are more deserving being nearest to the Holy Nabi.”
“By Allah the son of the man whose father is unknown cannot rule over us.”

He fought heroically but was killed by the sword of Marra bin Manqaz al-‘Abadi. The narrator said that he saw a woman hurrying out of the tent. She was beautiful like the full moon and was crying: “Ah! My brother! Ah! My nephew.” When he enquired as to who she was, he was told that she was Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab bint Fatimah al-Zahra (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) caught hold of her hand and took her to her tent. Then he lifted the dead body of Ali Akbar (radiyallahu ‘anh) and placed it before the tent.

A Graceful Youth

Thereafter, other scions of the Hashimite blood and members of the Ahli-Bayt came to the forefront, and fighting courageously sacrificed their lives one by one. Meanwhile a graceful young man appeared on the scene. He was wearing a simple dress and putting sandals on his feet. He was a very beautiful person and his face was shining like a moon. He came out like a roaring lion and attacked upon the enemy with his immense force. Amr bin Sa’d Azdi struck on his head with a sword. The young man cried: “O’ Uncle!” and fell upon the ground. On hearing his cries Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) came to his rescue and attacked upon the killer with a sword like a hungry falcon and ferocious lion. The assailant raised his hand in his defense but could not succeed. His hand was cut off from the elbow. Being wounded the killer called for help. The army came to his help but rode over him in a state of utter confusion. The narrator said that when the dust was slightly subsided he saw Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) standing near the youngman who was in the agony of death. Imam Husain was saying: “Disaster seize them who killed you. What answer will they give to your grandfather on the Day of Resurrection? By Allah, it is heart-rending for your uncle that you cried for help but he could not save you from the clutches of the enemy. Alas! Enemies of your uncle have increased in number than his friends.” Then he took the dead body in his lap and pressed it close to his chest. He brought the dead body to the tent with its feet trailing on the ground and laid it beside the body of Hazrat Ali Akbar (radiyallahu ‘anh). The narrator enquired of the people as to who he was and was told that he was Sayyid al-Qasim bin Hasan bin Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anh).

Martyrdom of Newly-Born Babe

While Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was standing there, he was apprised of the birth of a son. The babe was put in his arms and as he was calling the Adhan in his ears, an arrow was shot from the opposite direction that pierced the throat of the infant. The infant died instantaneously. He pulled out the arrow from the throat of the infant. The blood gushed out of the wond and by taking a handful of it, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) smeared the body of the infant. He then said: “By Allah, you are more dearer in the sight of Allah than the she-camel of Nabi Salih (alaihis-Salaam). And Nabi Muhammad (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) has more prestige in the sight of Allah than Nabi Salih (alaihis-Salaam). O’ Allah! Thou has withheld they succor to us. Do what Thou may deem fit for us.”

Likewise most of the prominent personalities of Bani Hashim and Ahli-Bayt were martyred. Historians have recorded the names of the following Shuhadaa:

  1. Muhammad bin Abi Sa’id bin ‘Aqil
  2. Abdullah bin Muslim bin ‘Aqil
  3. Abdullah bin ‘Aqil
  4. Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Aqil
  5. Ja’far bin ‘Aqil
  6. Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far
  7. Awn bin ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far
  8. ‘Abbas bin Ali
  9. Abdullah bin Ali
  10. Uthman bin Ali
  11. Muhammad bin Ali
  12. Abu Bakr bin Ali
  13. Abu Bakr bin al-Hasan
  14. Abdullah bin al-Hasan
  15. Al-Qasim bin al-Hasan
  16. Ali Akbar bin al-Husain
  17. Abdullah bin al-Husain

Boldness of a Child

Now it was the Imam’s turn to sacrifice himself for the cause of Allah. He was standing alone in the battlefield but no one dared attack him. Enemy tried a number of times to kill Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), but nobody was willing to take the responsibility of killing him, and wanted to bear the burden of this sin. At last, Shimr started provoking his army men to attack. They encircled Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) from every side. Now there were only woman and a few teenagers in the camp of the Ahli-Bayt. A teen aged boy saw Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) in danger and became impatient. He picked up a wooden stick in his hands and ran out to help the Imam. Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) saw him and caught hold of him. Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) also said to his sister: “Stop him. Don’t let him come out.” The boy, however, forced himself loose from her grip and ran to the side of the Imam. The same moment Bahrain bin Ka’b drew his sword to strike the Imam. The boy remonstrated: “O’ wicked! Will you kill my uncle?” The stone-hearted assailant brought down his sword on the boy who took the blow on his arm. His hand was severed. The boy cried with pain. Hazrat Husain clasped him to his bosom and consoled him saying: “Be patient, my child! Let this suffering be the means of reward from Allah. Allah Ta’ala will join you with your elders: Nabi Muhammad (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim), Ali bin Abu Talib, Hamza, Ja’far, and Hasan bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anhum).

Valor of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)

Eventually, Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) remained alone to face the grim situation single-handed. The enemy now passed close to the Imam who began to wield his sword right and left and forced the enemy to retreat. Abdullah bin Amar who was himself taking part in the fight reported that he attacked Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) with his spear and might have killed him, but he desisted, thinking not to carry the sin on his head. He said: “Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) was being attacked from all sides but he made the enemy to retreat. He was wearing a shirt and a turban. By Allah, I have not seen such a disheartened man whose family members were killed before his eyes, so valiant, bold, resolute, and steadfast. The position was that the attackers were running right and left like sheep before a lion.” This position continued for a long time. Meanwhile Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha), the sister of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) came out of her tent and cried: “O’ Umar, would Abu Abdullah be killed before your eyes.” Umar turned his face but tears began to roll down from his eyes upon his cheeks and beard.

Arrow Pierced the Throat of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)

While fighting Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) felt very thirsty, and went towards Euphrates to quench his thirst but the enemy did not allow him to drink water. Suddenly his throat was pierced by an arrow. He pulled out the arrow and threw the blood which oozed out of his throat towards the sky saying: “O’ Allah! I complain only to Thee. See how the people are treating the grandson of Thy Messenger (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim).”

Shimr was Reprimanded

Then Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) turned towards his camp but he was resisted by Shimr and his companions. Then Imam Husain realized that their intent was to plunder the tents. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) said: “If you have deserted your religion and are not afraid of the Last Day, at least you should respect the worldly morals. Keep safe my tents from your vagabonds and debauchees.” Shimr replied, “Yes, we shall not harm your tents.”

The Last Warning

Now it was too late. The narrator reported that had the enemy wished it would have killed Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) earlier but nobody was inclined to take the responsibility of this heinous crime. At last Shimr [the Damned] cursed his army men and shouted: “May you meet with ill-fate. What are you waiting for? Why don’t you kill Husain?” The enemy surrounded him again. The Imam (radiyallahu ‘anh) said to Shimr: “Why are you inciting your army to kill me. By Allah, Allah would not be displeased on anyone else’s murder so much as of mine.”

Sinan bin Anas Kills Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh)

The time of Imam Husain’s martyrdom was now drawing near. Zur’a bin Sharikh al-Tamimi injured Imam Husain’s left arm and then struck a blow on his shoulder. Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) swerved due weakness. People being frightened moved to the rear but Sinan bin Anas of Najaf 2 came forward and attacked Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) with a spear. Imam Husain fell down upon the ground. Shimr ordered a savage to sever the Imam’s head from his body but he could not do it. Sinan bin Anas, in a mood of indignation, cursed him; dismounted from his horse and cut off Imam Husain’s head from his body.

Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq (radiyallahu ‘anh)3 narrated that after the murder of the Imam, thirty-three injuries of swords and thirty four wounds of arrow and spear were found on his dead body.

The Murderer (may Allah curse him)

Sinan bin Anas was extremely confused after killing Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). He did not allow any body to come near the dead body. He was running to and fro lest some one else should sever the head and take it away. The killer (may Allah give that wretch what he deserves!) himself severed the head and handed it over to Kholi bin Yazid Asbhi and then ran to Umar bin Sa’d’s tent shouting:

“Load me with gold and silver for I have killed a Great King; I have killed him whose parents are most venerable and who is the best among his lineage at present.”

Umar bin Sa’d called him inside the tent and showed his indignation. “By Allah, you are insane!” Then striking him with his stick said: “O’ mad man! Don’t say so. You are saying a thing which if it comes to the notice of Ibn Ziyad, he will definitely get you killed.”

Plundering and Looting

After the perpetration of the murder, the Kufans took off the clothes of the dead body of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and then rushed to his tents. Ali Zain-ul-‘Abidin was lying sick in the bed. Shimr reached along with some soldiers and said: “May we not also kill him,” but some of his companions dissuaded him, saying: “Will you kill even the children?” Meanwhile Umar bin Sa’d arrived on the spot and ordered that no one should enter the ladies’ tents or tease them. If someone had plundered anything, he should return it forthwith.

On listening these words Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (radiyallahu ‘anh) said in his ailing voice: “Umar bin Sa’d! May Allah reward you for this act of kindness. Your orders have saved us from the culprits.”

Body Trampled

Umar bin Sa’d ordered that Imam Husain’s body should be trampled over by the horses’ hoofs. He called for volunteers. Ten men came forward and trampled the body.

“When on the day of Judgement Naziri shows up with a blood-stained shroud, people will cry aloud: ‘Who the petitioner is!’”

In this battle, seventy-two men of Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) were martyred, while eighty-eight of the Kufans were slain.

Hazrat Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) Beholds the Mangled Corpse

On the following day, Umar bin Sa’d left the battlefield of Kufa taking the women and children of the Ahli-Bayt with him as prisoners. Qara bin Qais, an eye witness, narrated that when these ladies saw the mangled corpses of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and that of his relatives and his companions, the could not restrain their grief and lamentations. Qara could not forget the bewailing of Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab bint Hazrat Fatimah (radiyallahu ‘anhuma):

“O’ Muhammad! May the blessings and salutations of the angels in heaven be upon you. Behold! Your Husain is lying in blood and sand in the desert. His body has been cut to pieces. Your daughters have been made prisoners. Your progeny has been killed and is lying in dust.”

Qara bin Qais added further that there was no eye that did not shed tears on hearing this lamentation.

Seventy-two Heads

Then the heads of all the Husainis killed in the battlefield were severed. These heads were seventy-two in number. Shimr Zil Joushan, Ibn al-Ash’ath, Umar bin al-Hajjaj and Gharmara bin Qais took all these heads to Ubaidullah bin Ziyad.

Imam Husain’s Head was placed before Ibn Ziyad

Hamid bin Muslim who accompanied Kholi bin Yazid while carrying the head of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) to Kufa reported that when Imam Husain’s head was placed before Ibn Ziyad, he repeatedly struck his stick on the lips of the Imam. On seeing this, Zaid bin Arqam stood up and admonished him not to do so, as he had seen the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) kissing these lips. He then began to weep bitterly. Ibn Ziyad got annoyed and said: “May Allah make you weep! Had you not been decrepit I would certainly have put you to death. Zaid bin Arqam (radiyallahu ‘anh) left the meeting, saying:

“O’ people of Arab! Henceforth you are slaves. You have killed Ibn Fatimah. You have appointed Ibn Marjana (Ibn Ziyad) as your ruler. He puts your noble men to death and enslaves your pious persons. You have chosen humiliation. May Allah destroy them who accept humiliation.”

Ibn Ziyad and Hazrat Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha)

The narrator reported that when the women and children of the Ahli-Bayt were brougth before Ibn Ziyad, Hazrat Zainab was wearing ordinary clothes and was surrounded by her maids. Ibn Ziyad inquired as to whom she was, but no one responded. When he inquired for the third time, a maid servant replied, “She is Zainab bint Fatimah (radiyallahu ‘anha).” Thereupon Ibn Ziyad (May Allah give him what he deserves!) shouted: “Praise be to God who has disgraced and destroyed you and brought dishonor to your name.” Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anh) replied: “All praise is due to the Almighty Allah Who honored us by raising the Holy Nabi Muhammad (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) amongst us and purified us. Only the wicked and vicious are disgraced.” Ibn Ziyad said again, “Don’t you see how Allah has treated your family?!” Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) replied, “Death was their fate, so they met with death. Allah will gather you and them together very soon and then you can cross question each other in His Court.” Ibn Ziyad said: “Allah has rejoiced me with the death of your arrogant leader and the rebels of your family.” Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) tried to restrain herself but could not suppress her tears and said: “By Allah, you have killed my leader, destroyed my family, slashed my branches, and cut off my roots. If this rejoices your heard, you may rejoice over it.”

Ibn Ziyad smiled and said: “Bravo! This is heroism. Your father was a poet as well as a hero. Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) replied: “What a woman has to do with heroism? My misfortune had made me unmindful of heroism. What I say comes out of my mouth with a burning heart.” Ibn Ziyad was enraged. Seeing him in this condition Umar bin Harth said: “My Allah ennoble the Amir! She is merely a woman. A woman’s utterance should be taken lightly.”

Ibn Ziyad and Imam Zain-ul-Abidin

After these bitter exchanges, Ibn Ziyad cast a glance on Ali Zain-ul-Abidin bin Husain bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anh) who was seriously ill at that time. Ibn Ziyad inquired his name. He replied: “Ali bin Husain.” Ibn Ziyad asked with astonishment: “Has Ali bin Husain not been killed in the fight.” Hazrat Zain-ul-Abidin (radiyallahu ‘anh) did not reply. Ibn Ziyad said: “Why don’t you speak?” Imam Zain-ul-Abidin replied: “Another brother of mine was named Ali. People killed him. Ibn Ziyad said: “People did not murder him, but Allah has killed him.” On this Hazrat Zain-ul-Abidin recited the following Ayat of the Holy Qur’an:

“It is Allah Who deprives one of his life at the time of death. And no one dies except by Allah’s Command.”

On hearing this Ibn Ziyad shouted: “May Allah kill you! You are also one of them.” Ibn Ziyad wanted to kill him but Hazrat Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) cried impatiently: “I implore you in the name of Allah not to kill the boy. In case you are bent upon to kill the boy, kill me also along with him.” Imam Zain-ul-Abidin said in a loud voice: “O’ Ibn Ziyad! If you have even the remotest kinship with these ladies, send them after I am killed under the escort of a pious man who should treat them gently in accordance with social principles of Islam.” Ibn Ziyad fixed his gaze upon Hazrat Zainab for a long time and then said to the people: “Relationship is a very delicate sentiment. By Allah, I am sure she really wants to lay her life along with the lad. All right, leave the lad and allow him to go with the women of his family.”

Murder of Ibn Afif

After this incident Ibn Ziyad instructed the citizens to assemble in the main Masjid and delivered a sermon before the assembly as follows:

“All praise is due to Allah Who made the truth manifest and has granted victory to the followers of truth. Yazid bin Mu’awiyah, the Commander of the faithful and his party became victorious and defeated Husain bin Ali and his companions, the liars.”

On hearing this, Abdullah bin Afif Azdi, a well-known companion of Hazrat Ali (Karramallahu Ta’ala wajhah) who had lost his eye-sight in the battles of Jamal and Siffin, stood up and shouted: “By Allah! Ibn Marjana, you are a liar and a son of a liar, and not Husain bin Ali (radiyallahu ‘anh).” Ibn Ziyad, the wretch, got annoyed and put him to death.

In the Court of Yazid

Ibn Ziyad fixed the head of Hazrat Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) on a pole and sent the same to Yazid through Zahr bin Qais. Ghaz bin Rabi’ah reported that he was sitting in the court of Yazid when Zahr bin Qais arrived. Yazid inquired: “What is the news?” Qais replied, “I have brought the news of victory. Husain bin Ali came to us along with eighteen members of the Ahli-Bayt and sixty supporters. We stopped them and demanded them to surrender or fight. They preferred to fight than to submit. So we attacked them at the break of dawn. When swords began to strike their heads, they ran to and fro to save themselves just as pigeon ran away on seeing the eagle. Then we put them all to death. At this moment their dead bodies are lying naked. Their clothes are stained with blood. Their dead bodies are rotting in the sun and are serving as a food for vultures.

Yazid Began to Weep

The narrator reported that on hearing this pathetic story, Yazid’s eyes brimmed with tears, and he said: “I could be pleased at your loyalty even without the murder of Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). May Allah curse the son of Ibn Sumiyya (Ibn Ziyad, la’natullahi ‘alayh)! By Allah, had I been present there, I would certainly have forgiven Husain. May Allah shower his blessings upon Husain.” Yazid did not give any reward to the messenger.

Yazid’s Reaction

Qasim bin Abdur-Rahman, a slave of Yazid, reported that when heads of Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) and that of the Ahli-Bayt were placed before Yazid, he recited the following verse:
“The swords sever the heads of those whom we love, though they were in fact tyrants who neglected the truth.”
Then said: “By Allah, O’ Husain! Had I been there I would not have killed you.”

Ahli-Bayt in Damascus

After sending the head of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) Ibn Ziyad dispatched the remaining members of the Ahli-Bait to Damascus under the escort of Shimr bin Zil Joushan and Mahzar bin Tha’laba. Imam Zain-ul-Abidin kept quiet throughout the journey. He did not speak even a single word to anybody. On arrival in the court of Yazid, Mazhar bin Tha’laba cried: “O’ Commander of the faithful! I have brought sinners before you.” On hearing this Yazid got annoyed and said: “No woman had given birth to a more vicious and wicked child than Tha’laba’s mother.”

Yazid and Imam Zain-ul-Abidin

Yazid then sent for his Syrian chiefs to his court, and addressing Imam Zain-ul-Abidin, he said: “O’ Ali! It was your father who broke off family relationship, forgot my rights, tried to oust me from my rule. You have already seen the results of disobedience committed by your father.” In response, Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (radiyallahu ‘anh) recited the following Ayats of the Holy Qur’an:

“There falls not a calamity either in the earth or on yourself but it is recorded in a book before We bring it into being. Surely that is easy for Allah, that you may not grieve over what is lost to you or exult because of that which He has given to you. And Allah loves not the conceited and the haughty.” (Surah al-Hadeed, ayats 22-23)

Yazid was displeased to hear this. He desired that his son Khalid should give the answer but Khalid did not understand anything. Then Yazid, pointing out to Khalid said:

“And whatever misfortune befalls you is due to what your own hands have earned. And He forgives many of your sins.” (Surah al-Shura, ayat 30)

Then Yazid turned his attention towards other children and women who were made prisoners. Yazid was greatly moved at their sad plight and declared: “May Allah curse Ibn Marjana (Ubaidullah Ibn Ziyad)! Had he been related to you he would have have treated you in such a way, no sent you to me in this pitiable condition.”

Fearless and Daring Conversation of Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha)

Hazrat Fatimah bint Ali reported that when we were brought before Yazid, he took pity on us and treated us gently. While we were sitting in a court a Syrian lad stood up and pointing to me requested Yazid to deliver me to him. I was in teen and was very pretty. I began to tremble with fear and caught the hand of elder sister Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha), who was older than I. She was very wise and knew that it could never happen. She shouted at the lad: “You are a wretched fellow. Neither you nor he (pointing at Yazid) has the power to do so.

Yazid got angry at this boldness and said: “You tell a lie. By Allah, this is within my powers if I wish to do so. Hazrat Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) retorted: “No, Allah has not given you this power. It is otherwise if you leave our party and become apostate by renouncing our religion.” Yazid got annoyed further and said: “It was your father and brother who renounced the religion.” Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) promptly replied: “It was Allah’s religion, my father’s religion, my brother’s religion, my grandfather’s religion from which you, your father, and your grandfather obtained guidance.” Yazid shouted: “O’ enemy of Allah! You tell a lie.” Hazrat Zainab replied, “You have become a ruler by force. You are misusing your powers with tyranny and are oppressing the people with your force.”

Hazrat Fatimah bint Ali added that this conversation made Yazid to feel ashamed because then he kept silent. The Syrian lad, however, stood up again and repeated his request. On this, Yazid scolded him, “Be off, O’ wretch! May Allah send death to you!”

Consultation with Syrian Chiefs

Yazid consulted the Syrian courtiers in regard to the treatment of the prisoners. Some suggested harsh treatment while Nu’man bin Bashir said: “They should be treated in the matter the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) would have treated them on seeing their plight.” On hearing this, Hazrat Fatimah said: “O’ Yazid! They are daughters of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim).” This reference moved Yazid and his courtiers to tears and he ordered for their lodging in an independent house.

Yazid’s Wife Expresses Grief

Meanwhile, the news of the arrival of the prisoners reached Yazid’s household. His wife, Hind bint ‘Abdullah, put on veil on her face and came out. She asked Yazid: “O’ Commander of the Faithful! Is it the head of Husain ibn Fatimah, daughter of the Holy Last Messenger of Allah?” Yazid replied, “Yes, weep as much as you can on the murder of grandson on the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) and of the scions of the Hashimi house. The wicked Ibn Ziyad made haste in killing him. May Allah kill him too.”

Yazid’s [Arrogant] Address

Thereafter addressing the courtiers, Yazid said: “Do you know how did it happen? It was the outcome of Husain’s error in judgment. He remained under the impression that his father is better than Yazid’s father; his mother is better is better than Yazid’s mother; his grandfather is better than Yazid’s grandfather. And he himself is better than Yazid, hence he deserves more to rule over the country than Yazid. His stand that his father was better than my father was wrong. Ali and Mu’awiyah fought with each other and the world saw who emerged successful in the contest. As regards his statement that his mother is better than my mother, is undoubtedly true. Fatimah (radiyallahu ‘anha), daughter of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) is decidedly far more prestigeous than my mother. Similarly, his grandfather is certainly better than my grandfather. By Allah, no one who believes in Allah and the Day of Judgement can grade anyone equal to, not to speak of better than the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). Husain erred in judgment and forgot the following Ayat of the Holy Qur’an, which reads as follows:

‘O’ Allah! Malik-ul-Mulk! Thou givest sovereignty to whomsoever Thou wills, and Thou takest away sovereignty from whomsoever Thou wills. Thou exaltest whomsoever Thou wills and Thou abasest whomsoever Thou wills. In Thy hand is all good. Verily, Thou hast power over all things.’” (Surah Aal-e-Imran, ayat 26)

Then the ladies of the Ahli-Bayt were sent to Yazid’s palace, where the women of the family of Mu’awiyah began to weep bitterly on seeing their sad plight.

Yazid Tries to Make Amends

When Yazid came into the palace, Fatimah bint al-Husain asked him: “Have the daughters of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) become slave-girls?” Yazid replied, “O’ Daughter of my brother! It would never happen.” Fatimah said, “We have been deprived even of our earrings.” Yazid promised to compensate their loss and he did repay them two-fold or even more.

Yazid used to take his breakfast and dinner along with Hazrat Ali bin Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh). One day he called Hazrat Hasan’s young child Amr to him and by way of joking asked him if he would have a duel with his son Khalid who was of his age. Amr bin al-Hasan replied in the affirmative, adding that both of them should be given daggers in their hands and then their duel be watched. Yazid laughed and holding Amr in his lap remarked: “A serpent begets a serpent.”

Yazid’s Contrition

Yazid entertained the Ahlul-Bayt as his guests for some days. He used to stay in his private meetings that had he been a little circumspect, he would have kept Hazrat Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) with him for a few days and considered his terms, though it might have weakened his own position to some extent. This attitude would have discharged himself of his obligations towards the rights and relations of the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). He repeatedly cursed Ibm Marjana (Ibn Ziyad) who forced Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh) to fight by not agreeing to his terms of participating in Jihad on the frontiers or of approaching him for settlement of dispute. Yazid stated Ibn Ziyad (la’natullahi ‘alayh) had thus made him (Yazid) the victim of people’s wrath.

Departure of Ahli-Bayt to Madinah

While bidding farewell to the Ahli-Bayt on their departure to Madinah, Yazid assured Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (radiyallahu ‘anh) cursing Ibn Ziyad: “Had I been there in the battlefield, and had Husain offered his terms to me, I would certainly have accepted them. I would have saved his life at all costs, even at the cost of the life of my own son. But what Allah willed has happened. Keep in touch with me through correspondence and let me know your needs. Afterwards Sakina, daughter of Imam Husain (radiyallahu ‘anh), used to say that she had not seen any ungrateful person who was more hospitable than Yazid.

Generosity of the Ahli-Bayt

Yazid dispatched the Ahli-Bayt under reliable military escort. It treated the ill-fated Ahli-Bayt gently throughout the journey. On reaching Madinah, Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab (radiyallahu ‘anha) and Fatimah bint Husain sent to the escort leader their bangles and bracelets as a token of reward for his kind treatment during the journey. He, however, refused to accept these ornaments and returned saying: “By Allah, this treatment was not for worldly gains but it was all due to the love and respect for the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim).”

Lamentation in Madinah

This sad news was the talk of the town before the arrival of the Ahli-Bayt. When the party arrived in Madinah, the Hashimi ladies hastened to them, lamenting the loss of lives of the near and dear ones. The daughter of Hazrat ‘Aqil bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anh) was in the forefront crying and reciting the following verses:

“What excuse will you have to offer to the Holy Nabi (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) when he questions you as the last of his followers: ‘How did you treat my family and my progeny after me?’ Some of them are prisoners and the others are writhing in blood.”


  1. Hazrat Sayyidah Zainab bint Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anha). Daughter of Sayyidah Fatimah az-Zahra (radiyallahu ‘anha).
  2. Najaf is an area in Iraq, outside of Baghdad. The majority of its inhabitants being those who claimed to be so-called partisons of Hazrat Ali (Karam Allahu wajhahu) and the Ahlul-Bayt. However, their actions (even present-day) proved, beyond the shadow of doubt, otherwise. The deaths of many members from the Ahlul-Bayt is sufficient evidence of their treachery.
  3. Sayyidina Ja’far bin Muhammad bin Ali bin al-Husain bin Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu ‘anh).