Apr 21, 2009

Catholic vs Christian

Difference Between Catholic and Christian

I will summarize the commonalities across all of the Christian followers.

First, Jesus of Nazareth was the son of God and the savior of humanity. The death and resurrection of Jesus is a pivotal belief in all Christian denominations. All Christians believe the path to salvation lies in the acceptance of the church and its doctrine and they all believe Jesus died on the cross to atone for the sins of humanity. The Holy Trinity is a belief that the son (Jesus) the father (God) and the holy spirit are one in the same. The important holy book is the Bible, made up of the Old Testament and the New Testament; also known as the “good news”. The Jewish faith follows the teachings of the Old Testament; maybe it’s the “bad news”. The bad news is that we are all sinners, the good news is that we can all be saved. That last sentence was just my sarcastic brain overcoming my objective brain. I will try not to let it happen again, but I am not making any promises

Roman Catholicism is a denomination of the Christian faith. It makes up, by far, the largest denomination of all the subsets including Lutheranism, Protestantism, and others. The Catholic Church views itself as the one holy church; the true faith. Catholics believe in the 7 sacraments, while other Christian denominations don’t recognize all the sacraments. In addition, the Catholic Church has a spiritual leader, the Pope, who, it is believed is a direct descendant of Peter the Apostle, the one whom Jesus asked to build the church - St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. The Bishops are believed to be descendants of the other Apostles.

When you are a Catholic, you are Christian, but you are not a Catholic because you are a Christian. Catholics believe in a literal and spiritual interpretation of the Bible. The literal is used as a tool to teach morals. They also believe in typology; that events in the Old Testament were allegories for events in the New Testament; for example, Moses parting the Red Sea is a reference to Baptism. Catholics also believe that the Scriptures should be closely followed word for word and are not open for interpretation saving that of Bishops who are direct descendants of Jesus’ Apostles. And finally, Catholics believe the end of the world as stated in the Book of Revelations is not a metaphor, but an event that will actually happen sometime in the future.


Sunni vs Shiite

Difference Between Sunni and Shiite

Both Sunni and Shia Muslims share the most fundamentalIslamic beliefs and articles of faith. The differences between these two main sub-groups within Islam initially stemmed not from spiritual differences, but political ones. Over the centuries, however, these political differences have spawned a number of varying practices and positions which have come to carry a spiritual significance.

Origins - A Question of Leadership

The division between Shia and Sunni dates back to the death of the Prophet Muhammad, and the question of who was to take over the leadership of the Muslim nation. Sunni Muslims agree with the position taken by many of the Prophet's companions, that the new leader should be elected from among those capable of the job. This is what was done, and the Prophet Muhammad's close friend and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first Caliph of the Islamic nation. The word "Sunni" in Arabic comes from a word meaning "one who follows the traditions of the Prophet."

On the other hand, some Muslims share the belief that leadership should have stayed within the Prophet's own family, among those specifically appointed by him, or among Imams appointed by God Himself.

The Shia Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad's death, leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law, Ali. Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not recognized the authority of elected Muslim leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of Imams which they believe have been appointed by the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself. The word "Shia" in Arabic means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical "Shia-t-Ali," or "the Party of Ali." They are also known as followers of "Ahl-al-Bayt" or "People of the Household" (of the Prophet).


Sunni Muslims make up the majority (85%) of Muslims all over the world. Significant populations of Shia Muslims can be found in Iran and Iraq, and large minority communities in Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, and Lebanon.

Differences in Religious Practice

From this initial question of political leadership, some aspects of spiritual life have been affected and now differ between the two groups of Muslims.

It is important to remember that despite these differences in opinion and practice, Shia and Sunni Muslims share the main articles of Islamic belief and are considered by most to be brethren in faith. In fact, most Muslims do not distinguish themselves by claiming membership in any particular group, but prefer to call themselves simply, "Muslims."

Religious Leadership

Shia Muslims believe that the Imam is sinless by nature, and that his authority is infallible as it comes directly from God. Therefore, Shia Muslims often venerate the Imams as saints and perform pilgrimages to their tombs and shrines in the hopes of divine intercession.

Sunni Muslims counter that there is no basis in Islam for a hereditary privileged class of spiritual leaders, and certainly no basis for the veneration or intercession of saints. Sunni Muslims contend that leadership of the community is not a birthright, but a trust that is earned and which may be given or taken away by the people themselves.

Religious Texts and Practices

Shia Muslims also feel animosity towards some of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, based on their positions and actions during the early years of discord about leadership in the community. Many of these companions (Abu Bakr, Umar, Aisha, etc.) have narrated traditions about the Prophet's life and spiritual practice. Shia Muslims reject these traditions (>hadith>) and do not base any of their religious practices on the testimony of these individuals. This naturally gives rise to some differences in religious practice between the two groups. These differences touch all detailed aspects of religious life: prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.

For more detailed information about the historical context of the Shia/Sunni split, and modern-day interpretations and repercussions, please visit the links to the right.


Black vs White

Difference Between Black and White

Black can be defined in a few ways. It does not emit any color, nor reflect any light and thus appears black to the human eye. Black can be both the absence of color and a blending of the three primary colors of red, blue and yellow to create a shade resembling black to the human eye.

Black surfaces absorb heat. The photons that hit the surface are absorbed; and since the First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, the photons excite the surface particles of the black object, causing them to move faster. Fast moving particles are warmer than slow moving particles, so black objects are hotter than other colored objects.

White is all the colors in the spectrum. When white light is shined through a prism, the colors that make up the light are separated into their individual colors. White also reflects photons, making it a fabric that is cooler to wear in desert and other hot climates. Thus “never wear white after labor day” rule doesn’t really apply in the Southern hemisphere.


Baking Soda vs Baking Powder

Difference Between Baking Soda and Baking Powder

Baking Soda

Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with moisture and an acidic ingredient (e.g., yogurt, chocolate, buttermilk, honey), the resulting chemical reaction produces bubbles of carbon dioxide that expand under oven temperatures, causing baked goods to rise. The reaction begins immediately upon mixing the ingredients, so you need to bake recipes which call for baking soda immediately, or else they will fall flat!

Baking Powder

Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate, but it includes the acidifying agent already (cream of tartar), and also a drying agent (usually starch). Baking powder is available as single-acting baking powder and as double-acting baking powder. Single-acting powders are activated by moisture, so you must bake recipes which include this product immediately after mixing. Double-acting powders react in two phases and can stand for a while before baking. With double-acting powder, some gas is released at room temperature when the powder is added to dough, but the majority of the gas is released after the temperature of the dough increases in the oven.

How Are Recipes Determined?

Some recipes call for baking soda, while others call for baking powder. Which ingredient is used depends on the other ingredients in the recipe. The ultimate goal is to produce a tasty product with a pleasing texture. Baking soda is basic and will yield a bitter taste unless countered by the acidity of another ingredient, such as buttermilk. You'll find baking soda in cookie recipes. Baking powder contains both an acid and a base and has an overall neutral effect in terms of taste. Recipes that call for baking powder often call for other neutral-tasting ingredients, such as milk. Baking powder is a common ingredient in cakes and biscuits.

Substituting in Recipes

You can substitute baking powder in place of baking soda (you'll need more baking powder and it may affect the taste), but you can't use baking soda when a recipe calls for baking powder. Baking soda by itself lacks the acidity to make a cake rise. However, you can make your own baking powder if you have baking soda and cream of tartar. Simply mix two parts cream of tartar with one part baking soda.


Alligators vs Crocodiles

Difference Between Alligators and Crocodiles

Alligators and crocodiles are both crocodilians; but from different families. There are three separate families of crocodilians: Aligatoridae include alligators and caimans, Crocodylidae include crocodiles and Gavialidae include only the gharial. This is only the difference in classification; there are many physical differences between the two animals.

Alligators are found in only two places in the world; the southeastern United States and in China. The Chinese alligator is classified as Critically Endangered by the IUCN. It is found in small bodies of water on the lower Yangtze River. Habitat destruction is the biggest culprit as more and more Chinese land is converted for agricultural uses - we really are insatiable in the West aren’t we? There is hope for them; there are over 10,000 Chinese alligators in zoos and sanctuaries. This is probably enough to maintain genetic diversity. Crocodiles are found in Africa, Asia, North and South America and Australia.

Alligators, in general have a more pointed and stronger jaw that assists them in crunching through the hard shells of turtles that are plentiful in their habitat in the United States. Crocodiles have a weaker jaw. Their jaws are also different. Only the top teeth are visible on an alligator with a closed mouth; their top jaw completely covers their lower jaw whereas crocodiles have jaws that allow their teeth to fit nicely between each other; meaning top and bottom teeth are both visible.

Two more interesting features distinguish alligator from crocodile. Small sensory organs on the skin of both animals are thought to detect changes in pressure, allowing them to locate prey easier. Alligators only have them in the area around their head, whereas crocodiles have them covering most of their body. The second feature is salivary like glands in the tongue that secrete salt. Both alligators and crocodiles have these organs, but they are only active in crocodiles. This is why crocodiles are able to live in ocean and fresh water while alligators live only in fresh water.

As with many things in life, there are exceptions to the rule. The Indian Mugger crocodile actually has a snout resembling an alligator, but is a crocodile in all other ways.


Alligators and crocodiles have been considered villainous, man-eating monsters for centuries, but that wasn’t always the case. In ancient Egypt, crocodiles were revered and even worshiped, but that worship was tinged with a deep-seated respect for this powerful, awesome creature. Myths sprouted up around these impressive beasts from the earliest time of man, and some persist today. Part of this is due to the fact that crocodiles and alligators have truly ancient roots, going all the way back to the period when dinosaurs still roamed the earth.


The two are often confused, but visually crocs and alligators are quite different. Alligators have a very broad, wide snout, and crocodiles have a narrower snout and jaw. Also crocodiles often have a lower tooth that juts out noticeably, while an alligator's fourth tooth is hidden.


Crocodilians are a cold-blooded species, and require an average temperature of approximately 80 degrees Fahrenheit to survive. This being the case, they are found on warmer continents that have swampy or humid conditions for at least part of the season.

The American alligator lives almost exclusively in the lower southeast regions of North America, from the Carolinas to Texas. The caiman, a smaller species of crocodiles, populate a large section of southern Mexico, Central and South America. The Chinese alligator lives in the lower Yangtze valley in China. The American crocodile is scattered throughout the Everglades and Florida Keys, and in Mexico and Central America. The African Nile crocodile is one of the most notorious, often growing as large as 16 to 20 feet in length. Southeast Asia has the Indo-Pacific crocodile, which lives in Indonesia, to the Philippines, and Australia.


Crocodilians are pure carnivores and ambush their prey by stealth. They swim either under water or skim quietly along the top of the water until they are within striking range, when they then explode upon the prey, grabbing it in their massive jaws and dragging it under water to drown. What they eat depends upon the species and where they are located. A crocodilians diet can consist of fish, turtles, rodents, birds, both small and large mammals, other reptiles and insects or young or immature crocs or alligators. Also, many species can exist on one large meal for over six months to a year. They store their food energy in fat cells, and draw from these in-between meals. Crocodiles will often “roll” with large prey to rip off chunks of flesh, before swallowing.


All crocodilians have webbed feet, which are a defined mark to their life in water. They also have very tough, or armored skin, which is actually an overlapped set of scales. These scales help to protect the salt-water croc and alligators from the harsh salinity of the sea. The eyes and nostrils are set up high on the head and snout to allow it to keep its main body submerged while still being able to breathe and view their surroundings with ease. Crocodiles have a vertical pupil that allows them to hunt effectively at night.

Crocodilians have an excellent sense of smell and hearing. Their jaws are enormously powerful, but only on the downward bite, which give the croc that infamous “snap,” like a spring-loaded hinge. Their teeth continue to grow their entire life. If they lose or break one off, another will soon grow to replace it. They also “shed” their teeth periodically, whether or not there’s been damage.

Their broad, heavily muscled tail assists them in swimming smoothly and quickly. Even though they have short legs, they can move surprisingly fast on dry land. Alligators and crocodiles can live up to fifty years of age on average.

Like snakes, crocodilians lay eggs. Some species build nests of debris and earth, while others excavate holes for their offspring. All species lay their eggs on land, near water but well above the water line. The eggs hatch anywhere from two to three months after being layed. Although the mother may lay as may as fifty eggs, few of the baby crocodilian will survive to adult hood. They are prey for many other animals, from birds to fish.


The answer is yes. Alligators are actually NOT known for being aggressive toward man unless nesting or unexpectedly disturbed, but crocodiles do and have killed humans if they happen to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. Crocodilians are territorial, and males will defend their territory from intruders, be it man or beast. The Nile crocodiles are known for the large number of human fatalities they cause every year.

It’s best never to approach one, even for a good “shot” with a camera. They can be very fast, even on land, and if you are in crocodile or alligator territory, it’s advisable never to linger on a bank or decide to go for a swim. They are the masters of disguise, and usually are never seen until it’s too late.


Mitosis vs Meiosis

Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis refers to duplication of a non sex cell into two diploid cells (diploid means that it has two sets of chromosomes - one from mom and one from dad) and Meiosis refers to the duplication of sex cells only; sperm and egg. Meiosis of one sex cell results in 4 haploid cells (haploid means that it only has one set of chromosomes to be contributed to another set during fertilization when we receive one set of chromosomes from mom and one set from dad). Mitosis is the duplication of new cells in eukaryotes; cells that have membrane bound organelles (organelles are the organs of a cell such as the mitochondria). The typical cell spends most of its time in a stage where it is performing its normal cellular functions, but because cells wear out, they need to be replaced. Mitosis strictly refers to the duplication of the DNA inside the nucleus. The term Mitotic phase refers to the entire cell division process.

It is important to remember that most cells spend their time performing normal metabolic functions and are not in a state of constant division. This phase is known as the G Zero phase. Some cells in the human body are permanently in this phase; cells that never divide, like neurons for example.

Interphase is the phase of growing bigger and duplicating the DNA and organelles.

Cell division happens like this: First, there is the Gap 1 phase where the cell starts to grow bigger by creating more cytoplasm and more organelles in preparation for division. Next is the Synthesis phase where the cell replicates its DNA within the nucleus, then comes Gap 2 where the cell continues to grow larger and create new organelles.

Prophase is where the loosely bound DNA condenses into chromosomes. Most of the time, your DNA is sitting unbound in the nucleus; stretching its coils as it were. In prophase, the two chromosomes join together to become sister chromatids. When I say two chromosomes here, there are actually four individual chromosomes because remember that each cell already has two sets; one from each parent, so in the Synthesis stage, both sets are duplicating resulting in four chromosomes.

In Metaphase, the sister chromatids line up at the point where the nucleus will split in half.

In Anaphase, the sister chromatids are split up into sister chromosomes, each ready to be inside a new nucleus.

In Telophase, the sister chromosomes are becoming bound into a new nuclear envelope, each ready to become the nucleus of its own cell. While Telophase is happening, Cytokinesis is taking place; the process of the whole cell dividing. Clefts appear on the surface of the cell and deepen. This will be the pinching off point between the two new cells.

The same stages happen in Meiosis, with a few differences. During the Synthesis phase, two sets of chromosomes become four; like before, but the arms of these chromosomes will cross with each other and recombine their DNA, so each chromosome has a different mixture of genes from mom and dad. That is why, with the exception of identical twins, no child of the same parents will look the same as the other as there are millions of possible combinations. In addition, Meiosis goes through this cycle twice instead of just once; Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2.

Meiosis One

In Prophase, the DNA duplicates as before, but the chromosomes recombine, creating genetic variability. This is unique to Meiosis.

In Metaphase, the cells line up as before.

In Anaphase, whole chromosomes are pulled to the opposite side of the nucleus in preparation for division.

In Telophase, each cell receives 46 chromosomes, but they aren’t in homologous pairs. Each person has 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of their cells, but they are in homologous pairs, meaning that the same genes are in the same places, but the actual genetic information is different. A new nuclear envelope forms around these two sets of haploid cells and cytokinesis begins which splits the cell in half.

In Meiosis 2, all of the same phases occur as before, but each of the two cells created in Meiosis 1 divide resulting in 4 cells, each with 23 chromosomes.

To summarize Mitosis vs Meiosis; Mitosis is the division of non sex cells to create two identical daughter cells with a complete set of chromosomes from both parents; 23 pairs. Meiosis is the division of sex cells to create 4 different daughter cells, each with 23 individual chromosomes.

Differences between mitosis and meiosis

In somatic cells In reproductive cells
One single division (here below A-E) of the mother cell (m) results in two daughter cells (d)mitosis mother- and daughter cellTwo divisions (here below: meiosis I in A-E and meiosis II in F-H) of the mother cell (meiocyte; m) result in four meiotic products (p)Meiocyte and meiotic products
mitosis diagram meiosis diagram
A mitotic mother cell can be either haploid or diploidmitosis mother and daughter cellA meiotic mother cell (meiocyte) is always diploidMeiocyte en meiotic products
The number of chromosomes per nucleus remains the same after division Diploid (= 2n) remains 2n
Haploid (= 1n) remains 1 n
The meiotic products contain a haploid (n) number of chromosomes, in contrast to the 2 n mother cellFrom 2n to n
Mitosis is preceeded by a S-phase in which the amount of DNA is duplicated Example for a diploid mother cell:
DNA amount in mitosis
Only meiosis I is preceeded by a S-phaseDNA amount in meiosis
Normally no pairing of homolog chromosomesxComplete pairing of all homolog chromosomes during prophase I Pairing of homolog chromosomes during prophase I
Normally no exchange of DNA (crossing-over) between chromosomesxAt least one crossing-over per homolog pair of chromosomes meiosis: crossing-over
The centromeres are split during anaphaseMitose: anafase splitsing centronerenThe centromeres do not separate during anaphase I, but during anaphase II Meiose: anafase II alleen splitsing centroneren
Conservative process: the genotype of the daughter cells is identical to that of the mother cellsmitosis: identical genotype mother and daughter cellsMeiotic products differ in their genotype from the mother cell (increase in genetic variation in the offspring) meiosis: non-identical genotype mother and daughter cells

The mitotic metaphase can be distinguished from the metaphase I of meiosis as no pairing of homolog chromosomes occurs in mitosis; this is not necessary, even not suitable for the mitotic process (why?). Further, homolog chromosomes separate during metaphase I of meiosis, whereas during mitosis and metaphase II the separating structures are the chromatides. The difference between the separation in mitosis and metaphase II (meiosis) is that halfing of the number of chromosomes has preceeded meiosis II, in contrast to mitosis. Also the meiotic products are genetically diverse with respect to their parent and among each other. This is not the case in mitosis!


Mass vs Weight

Difference Between Mass and Weight

Students of physics often confuse mass and weight of an object and many also feel that there is no difference between the two, while the fact is that there is a lot of difference between the two.

Mass is the amount of matter present in a body and is an intrinsic property of the body. Mass of an object remains the same always at any place.

Weight on the other hand is the force which a given mass feels due to the gravity at its place. Weight is measured in units of Force like Newton (which is the SI unit of Force).

If your mass is 60 kgs then your weight is approximately 60 x 10 = 600 Newtons. This is because

Force = mass x acceleration (From Newton's second Law)

Thus, weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity

If you go to moon your mass remains same, i.e 60 kgs, but your weight becomes less by 1/6 amount, since moon's gravity is 1/6 that of earth.

Mass of a body is measured by balancing it equally with another known amount of mass. You keep known amount of masses like blocks of 1 kg, 2 kg etc on one side till both the sides balance and then add up the numbers on the known side of mass and thus calculate the unknown mass. This works because, when the masses are equal on both the sides of the balance the effect of gravity cancels out for both (i.e weight cancels out) and hence we can calculate the mass on one side of the balance if we know the mass on the other side of the balance.

Weight is measured using a scale which effectively measures the pull on the mass exerted by the gravity of the earth.

Table 1: Differences between Mass and Weight

Mass Weight
1. Is always a constant at any place and time Depends on gravity at the place
2. Is measured in kilograms in SI unit Is measured in Newtons (not in kilograms as one might think)
3. Is measured using balance Is measured using scales
4. Can never be zero Can also be zero
5. Is an intrinsic property of a body and is independent of any external factor. Depends on
1. Mass of the object which is attracting it
2. Force with which it is being attracted (which in turn depends on the distance between the two)

If an object is in freefall towards the attractor (like earth), even then it has weight, but it experiences weightlessness (like an astronaut in a spaceship around the earth) since it is obeying the force. Weight can be felt only when the body in question tends to oppose the force of gravity (like u and me sitting on the surface of the earth:-)

Remember that even though we are at rest due to the friction between our self and earth's surface, our acceleration is not zero, it is still 9.8 m/s2 as the earth is constantly pulling us down towards its center. But we are resisting that pull and feel the force as weight.



Difference between HIV and AIDS

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.
H - Human: because this virus can only infect human beings.
I - Immuno-deficiency: because the effect of the virus is to create a deficiency, a failure to work properly, within the body's immune system.
V - Virus: because this organism is a virus, which means one of its characteristics is that it is incapable of reproducing by itself. It reproduces by taking over the machinery of the human cell.

A - Acquired: because it's a condition one must acquire or get infected with; not something transmitted through the genes
I - Immune: because it affects the body's immune system, the part of the body which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses
D - Deficiency: because it makes the immune system deficient (makes it not work properly)
S - Syndrome: because someone with AIDS may experience a wide range of different diseases and opportunistic infections.

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and it is the virus that causes AIDS; which stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The main difference being that a person can have HIV without having AIDS, but HIV is what causes AIDS.

The progression of HIV to AIDS is a continuum where AIDS is the end result, but different organizations have different definitions about when HIV becomes AIDS. According to the World Health Organization, the progression happens in four stages; the virus is in the body, but the person is asymptomatic, then sores in the mouth and other mucous membranes appear and upper respiratory tract infections start happening more frequently, next the person suffers from chronic diarrhea, tuberculosis and other serious lung infections, and finally brain complications, widespread candidiasis infections and Kaposi’s sarcoma, the hallmark skin lesions seen in AIDS patients. It is in this fourth stage that a person is classified as having AIDS.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV become AIDS when there are fewer than 200 CD4+T Cells per microliter of blood. Nine out of ten patients will develop AIDS within 10 to 15 years after contracting HIV. Treatment with antiretroviral drugs after a diagnosis of AIDS infection can prolong a patient’s life by up to 5 years or more. Without them, a patient can die in a year.


Gross vs Net

Difference Between Gross and Net

Gross refers to a sum of money given to another person; typically as payment for labor, without any taxes or other deductions taken away. For example, if you earn a salary of $40,000 per year, this amount is your gross earnings, but because we live in a community, we give some of our wages to help pay for the infrastructure of the community we live in. Without taxes, we wouldn’t have roads to drive to work on. If we don’t pay a small amount to ensure that we still receive some money in the event that we are unemployed, then we have no protection in times of crisis. The amount of money that we actually receive on our pay checks after taxes, unemployment and other deductions have been made represents our net earnings; the amount of money that we actually get to keep.

In terms of a corporation, gross earnings refer to the total amount of money that has come into the business over a defined period of time. Net earnings are the actual profit made once all expenses have been paid such as labor, cost of goods sold, overhead like rent and utilities and other expenses.


Civil vs Criminal law

The difference between civil and criminal law

The difference between civil and criminal law is that criminal law involves the notion of a punishment either by a fine to the government, incarceration or in some U.S. States, execution. Criminal law in the United States for example, divides punishments into 2 different categories: felonies which involve sentences of incarceration for more than one year and misdemeanors, which involve sentences of incarceration that are less than one year. Civil law works on the notion penalizing the defendant for behavior causing losses to the complainant; there is no jail time or fine paid to the government, but rather payment to cover losses suffered; such as loss of privacy, slander, libel and such. Civil law is different from Common Law. Common law is decided by judges and other bodies. So the innocence or guilt of a defendant is dependent upon decisions made in past similar cases. In cases where there are no previous examples in which to base a decision, a judge must set a precedent: create a rule that will apply to future similar cases. Common law is the system used in the United States.

Civil law is based on a system derived in the Roman Empire in the 6th century. Basically, it sets out a list of rules that must be followed that can only be changed by legislation of government. Judges do take into account decisions that have been made in the past, but they cannot change the law. Civil law is the most common system of law in the world. It is also known as European Continental Law. In summary, Common Law is based on rules set forth by judges and Civil Law is based on rules set forth by a governing body.


Hardware vs Software

Difference Between Hardware and Software

Hardware - It’s physical component of a computer system. E.g. Mouse, Monitor, Key Board come under this category. You relate your physical body to computer hardware like eyes, ears etc.

Software : Is a collection of programs, procedures and documentation that will make physical components in computer to do some task. Your soul is like a software which makes your body parts work.

Hardware refers to the physical components of the computer that run the software; such as the hard drive, the motherboard, the video and sound cards, the monitor, the printer, the keyboard and the mouse. Hardware also includes removable storage devices such as a CD Rom Drive or Zip Drive.

Software refers to things that are used by the hardware, such as programs that you install on your computer including games, word processing programs, spreadsheet programs, graphic design programs and the like.

There is an in between category called firmware or middleware. This is the program initially installed on your computer that allows you to run all other programs. Examples include operating systems include MS Windows, Linux and Mac OS. Basically, firmware is the go between the software and the hardware; translating the software into a language that the computer can understand and respond to.


Plasma vs LCD

Difference Between Plasma and LCD

The difference between an LCD and a Plasma TV is that a Plasma TV uses charged neon and xenon gas to hit red, blue and green phosphorus to create an image on the screen; whereas a LCD TV uses two pieces of fused, transparent material that uses special glue that holds liquid crystals. A light source allows charged liquid crystals to accept or not accept light in order to create an image.

Here are the similarities: they both have flat screens, they both have sharper images than a CRT, but the Plasma TV has a shorter screen life and generates more heat than a LCD TV. If picture sharpness and brightness of color is important to you, the Plasma TV is a better bet. It is available in larger screen sizes more commonly than is the LCD TV. Another advantage of a Plasma TV is it can be cheaper to buy than an LCD. The main disadvantage of the LCD screen is that if the individual liquid crystals burn out, than there will be little black and white dots on your television screen that cannot be repaired without replacing the whole screen.

The main disadvantage of a Plasma screen is that a picture left on too long can burn a permanent image onto the screen. I also wonder about the safety of having all of those chemicals around: neon, xenon, red, blue and green phosphorus, but sources I have found indicate that Plasma TV’s only generate a small amount of ultra violet radiation, and less than the traditional CRT TV


Analog vs Digital

Difference between Analog and Digital

Analog and Digital

As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented by a series of "1"s and "0"s. Simple enough when it's the deviceanalog or digital phone, fax, modem, or likewisethat does all the converting for you.

Digital versus analog can refer to method of input, data storage and transfer, the internal working of an instrument, and the kind of display. The word comes from the same source as the word digit and digitus.
The digital technology breaks your voice (or television) signal into binary code a series of 1s and 0s transfers it to the other end where another device (phone, modem or TV) takes all the numbers and reassembles them into the original signal. The beauty of digital is that it knows what it should be when it reaches the end of the transmission. That way, it can correct any errors that may have occurred in the data transfer. What does all that mean to you? Clarity. In most cases, you'll get distortion-free conversations and clearer TV pictures. The nature of digital technology allows it to cram lots of those 1s and 0s together into the same space an analog signal uses. Like your button-rich phone at work or your 200-plus digital cable service, that means more features can be crammed into the digital signal. Digital offers better clarity, but analog gives you richer quality. Digital like the VCR or the CD is coming down in cost and coming out in everything from cell phones to satellite dishes.

Phone lines

Digital lines are found in large, corporate phone systems. Though digital lines carry lower voltages than analog lines, they still pose a threat to your analog equipment.

Analog lines also referred to as POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), support standard phones, fax machines, and modems. These are the lines typically found in your home or small office

There are digital-to-analog adapters that not only let you use analog equipment in a digital environment, but also safeguard against frying the internal circuitry of your phone, fax, modem, or laptop.

Cordless phone

The very nature of digital technologybreaking a signal into binary code and recreating it on the receiving endgives you clear, distortion-free cordless calls.

Cordless phones with digital technology are also able to encrypt all those 1s and 0s during transmission so your conversation is safe from eavesdroppers. Plus, more power can be applied to digital signals and thus, you'll enjoy longer range on your cordless phone conversations.

The advantage to analog cordless products? Well, they're a bit cheaper. And the sound quality is richer. So unless you need digital security, why not save a few bucks and go with an analog phone? After all, in home or small office environments where you may be the only cordless user, you won't have any interference issues.

Keep in mind, when talking about digital and analog cordless phones, you're talking about the signals being transferred between the handset and its base. The phones themselves are still analog devices that can only be used on analog lines. Also, the range of your cordless phoneanalog or digitalwill always depend on the environment.

Cellular Phones

Perhaps the most effective use of the digital versus analog technology is in the booming cellular market. With new phone activations increasing exponentially, the limits of analog are quickly being realized.

Digital cellular lets significantly more people use their phones within a single coverage area. More data can be sent and received simultaneously by each phone user. Plus, transmissions are more resistant to static and signal fading. And with the all-in-one phones out nowphone, pager, voice mail, internet accessdigital phones offer more features than their analog predecessors.

Analog's sound quality is still superioras some users with dual-transmission phones will manually switch to analog for better sound when they're not concerned with a crowded coverage areabut digital is quickly becoming the norm in the cellular market.

Better Sound Quality
Digital offers a better quality of sound. Proponents of digital claimed too that because digital scrambled up the signals into bursts, it was more secure than analog and can help thwart "cloning," an act of grabbing phone account information over the air in order to copy then resell that information for piracy purposes. By some industry estimates, close to $650 million in wireless services has been coveted by these big-eared crooks, which only adds onto the operator's bottom line a cost that is eventually passed on to the customer. Digital has stronger battery life than analog, and for the most part, better, more modern features on the phones.


Rap vs Hip Hop

Difference Between Rap and Hip Hop

This is a complex and much discussed question to which there are many varying opinions. The generally accepted difference between Rap and Hip Hop is that Rap evolved from Hip Hop. Hip Hop began in the 1960’s and 1970’s in New York when pioneer artist D.J. Kool Herc isolated the percussion in funk, rock and latin beats and mixed it in various ways. Really, Hip Hop evolved from Funk artitsts like James Brown. Rap came about as MC’s created fast talking, rhyming introductions and interludes to DJ’s performances. Rap then took on a life of its own.

Rap, a style of music associated with rapid talking in rhymes to a beat accompanyment, also takes some of its roots from the Beat Poetry of the 1960’s; focussing on the social and political climate of the time. The first big Rap song hit the charts in 1979 with Sugar Hill Gang’s Rapper’s Delight.

If we were looking at Rap and Hip Hop belonging to a family tree, at the very top would be D.J. Kool Herc with his two children being Rap and Hip Hop (obviously with much overlap), related, but separate and distinct.


Qualitative vs Quantitative

Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative

Qualitative research is a method for gathering data that employs the use of surveys and focus groups with the goal of understanding the attitudes and behavior of the target group. It is looking for people to give their subjective account of an experience or idea. The researcher spends more time with the test subjects and generally tests fewer people compared to Quantitative research.

Quantitative research involves gathering statistical data; usually in the form of questionnaires and focussed interviews and usually involves using the Scientific Method to obtain information. If you have been called upon to fill in a document verbally or orally that asks you to rate on a scale of 1-5, you have participated in Quantitative research. Demographic information falls under this category: age, sex, occupation, area of residence, etc.

There is a tendency in the scientific community to give more credence to quantitative research, but this attitude is a mistake as both methodologies have their place in gathering research. I once assisted on a study that examined perception of crime and safety within a subject’s neighborhood as defined by them. For example, what you consider to be part of your neighborhood, I might not, even though we live next door to each other. When we looked at the answers to the questionnaire where people identified crime “hot spots” in their neighborhood, we found that there were some definite streets, houses and intersections that were widely thought to be centers of criminal activity. This would be considered Qualitative Data, but we also examined demographics as well: income, married status, sex, age, etc. because these two types of data support each other, fill out a more comprehensive picture and raise interesting questions about relationships between two sets of data. For example, is one age group more fearful of a particular area of town than another age group.

Both sets of gathering data are valid and useful, and many researchers employ both methods when studying a phenomenon.


Sales vs Marketing

Difference Between Sales and Marketing

Obviously they are related and can’t really exist without each other. In the marketing process, a need in the market is identified and a product is designed to fulfill that need and advertising is used to get the message to the consumer. Selling is the last step in the process; delivering the product to the customer. It is considered a “pull” approach. Marketing pulls the consumer to the store to purchase the product. Sales is focussed on convincing the customer to purchase a ready made product. The focus in the sales approach is to move inventory, not to identifiy individual customer needs and custom make a product to match their needs. Sales operates on a “push” approach; pushing the product on the customer.

There is an insinuated higher value placed on the marketing approach as it is more customer focussed, but selling plays an important role in the overall marketing strategy. For example, if you are launching a brand new product such as the plasma car that kids ride, consumers may be interested in buying based on advertisements that they see, but a skilled salesperson is able to present features, advantages and benefits of the product. Very few of these ride on toys would have been sold without the knowledgeable sales people available to answer customer questions and solve problems.

So, in summary, sales pushes an already existing product and marketing recognizes a need to be filled and creates a product to serve that need.



Difference Between RAM and ROM

RAM, or random access memory is the temporary memory that the computer uses to perform its functions while being used; that is, the when the computer is actively running, it is constantly storing and erasing bits of information. When you shut off your computer, that information is gone. It is like using a whiteboard with erasable ink: you can use it over and over and over, but once you erase something, it is gone forever; unless you recreate it from scratch.

ROM, or read only memory. In its pure form, ROM is the data that is permanently written to a chip, that there is no way of overwriting. An example of ROM is the program that you computer uses to reboot. It is essential to the core functioning of the computer. You might be familiar with Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory in the form of a flash drive.


Socialism vs Communism

Difference Between Socialism and Communism

The main difference between the ideologies is that Socialism allows for some free market economy and that each person is allotted resources according to how hard they work, and Communism seeks communal ownership of everything and that each person is allotted resources according to their need. Socialism is grounded in the theories of Karl Marx who is the father of modern Socialism. Marx’s biggest criticism of the capitalist system is that the workers are subjugated by the people who own the businesses because the owners control the access to all the resources. He concluded that the only method of change was through a worker revolution. Socialism is based on the principle of a collective ownership of the means of production and an equal distribution of resources. According to Marx, Socialism was one stage on the road to Communism, the ideal form of non government. There are differing classifications of Socialism ranging from Social Democrats who believe that there should be a mixture of state and personal control of resources. This is the form of government in Canada. Some Socialists at the other extreme believe that all ownership should be nationalized. Still other Socialists believe that ownership of resources should be decentralized into workers collectives that own and manage all of the resources in one geographic area.

Communism is based on the principle of all members of a society being free and that state ownership of the means of production would ensure that all members of a society would be equally taken care of. Theoretically, there are no social or economic differences between members of society. Think of Communism as a sort of political Nirvana in which all members of a society lived equally in harmony without the need for government. It is important to view the rise of the ideal of Communism though the lens of the Industrial Revolution where workers en masse were exploited to the benefit of very few, rich, owners. The ideal of Communism was that workers unite and rebel against ownership so that they all would share ownership (and profits) equally. In practice, the original idea of Communism was twisted into a means of control over a population and the term Communism has become synonymous with oppressive dictatorships that only have one ruling party who strives to crush any opposition.

Communism isn’t the only ideology that in theory looked good, but was used to subjugate people. Look at how Christianity was used, especially in the Middle Ages as a way of controlling people. Often politicians and religious authorities were one in the same and obedient service to the ruling authority was a way of avoiding hell; “do as we say, or you will have an eternity of torture.” I would like to be clear here. I am not saying that Christians are oppressive totalitarians. I am speaking historically of events where it was used to subjugate and repress populations, for example the Inquisition. This abuse of power was what lead to the movement of separation of church and state.



Difference Between GET and POST?

Most HTML pages are static documents that you read in your web browser. But when you really want to interact with a web page, you need some way send data back to the web server. The main way of doing this is with a form. There are two methods you can use with forms to encode data to send it back to the web server. What is the difference between GET and POST?

According to the HTML specifications, GET means that the form data is encoded with the URL that is requested from the web server. The application that receives the data parses out the form data from the URL, and then uses it as input for a query. You know you’re working with a GET query when you see a big long string of variables and values tacked onto the end of a web URL.

One of the advantages of a GET request is that you can bookmark the full URL with all the query information. If you open up the bookmark in your browser, you’ll see the results of the query again.

A POST means that the form data is sent within the message body itself, and is often used when you don’t want to have all this additional information visible in the URL.

GETs can be cached in a user’s browser history, while POSTs typically can’t. This is why you see a warning in your browser that the page will resubmit information to the server.

When developing a form, you should normally use a GET, unless a form submission may cause changes - then you should use POST. You should also use POST if any of the variables will cause the URL to be too long, and might crash a web browser.

You may also want to use POST if you want to make the functionality of your application less visible to users. Although, this isn’t real security. Anyone can just read the source code of your application to understand what variables you’re using.


Static vs Dynamic IP Addresses

Difference Between Static and Dynamic IP Addresses

When you connect a computer to a network, you have the choice of either giving it a static or dynamic IP address. What is the difference between them?

A fixed, or static IP address assigns a computer a specific IP address on a network. The computer knows what IP it’s supposed to have, and the domain controller on the network knows that IP that computer is supposed to have. If you try and give two computers the same IP address, you get collisions and errors. You might have seen this when you’re trying to set up a computer, and see an error that another computer on the network already has that IP address. Static IP addresses are often used for devices that will always be present on a network, like printers or web servers.

A dynamic IP address is assigned by a special computer on the network called a DHCP server. Computers that attempt to access the network use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to contact the server and request an IP address. The server has a pool of IP addresses that it can then assign to the requesting computer. Once that computer logs off again, the IP address can be freed up and assigned to a different computer. This allows large numbers of computers share a limited number of IP addresses. As long as they aren’t all trying to access the network at the same time.

So, the main difference between static and dynamic IP addresses is that static addresses are configured permanently to a specific computer, while dynamic addresses are handed out by a DHCP server on an as-needed basis.


Static vs Dynamic Web Pages

Difference Between Static and Dynamic Web Pages

When you browse the Internet, you use a web browser. This is an application that runs off your local computer, connected to the Internet. It requests web pages from distant web servers, and translates the HTML programming language into the familiar web page that you read, with embedded pictures. What is the difference between static and dynamic web pages?

A static web page is one that has been written once, like a word processing document, and then saved onto the web server. It’s like a file. If you could access the web server at a file system level, move the file over to your computer, and then open it up locally in your web browser, it should look exactly the same as if you looked at it through the Internet. Any changes to a static web page need to be made manually, and then saved again.

A dynamic web page is created on the fly. It doesn’t actually exist on the web server until a web browser requests it. When a request is made, web server runs whatever program will create the web page. That program creates the page dynamically and returns it to the web server, which then passes it along to the web browser.

So the main difference between static and dynamic web pages is that static pages exist on the web server, while dynamic pages are created on the fly when a web browser requests them.


Procedure vs Function

Difference Between Procedure and Function

Procedure and functions are generic terms used in computer science, interchangeably with method, subroutine, etc. However, in database programming they mean very specific things. So I’m going to assume you want to know, what is the difference between procedure and function in databases.

Both procedures and functions are used in Oracle’s programming language PL/SQL to allow your database to perform functionality when certain events happen in the database. For example, you can have a stored procedure run when data is inserted into a table, or have a function run when you’re calculating payroll.

When you create a function, it has to have a return statement inside it. For example, if you were calculating the area of a circle, you would call the function, pass it the radius of the circle, and the function would return the area of the circle back to whatever called it.

A procedure, on the other hand, doesn’t need to have a return statement. Instead, it can just perform an action. You pass it the parameters, like the radius of the circle, and have the procedure just insert the radius into a table. No data is returned back to whatever called it.

So, just to recap, the main difference between a procedure and function (when you’re doing database programming), is that functions have a return statement, while procedures don’t.


Then vs Than

Difference Between Then and Than

Two words that I, myself misused all the time without truely understanding their difference. Than is used only when comparing objects. I am taller than you. You make more money than me. Think of greater than and less than in math.

Then refers to time in a sequence of events or in reference to the past. I was much thinner back then. First I went to the supermarket, then I saw a movie.

There is nothing more to it.


AC vs DC

The difference between AC and DC

The difference between AC and DC is that AC is an alternating current (the amount of electrons) that flows in both directions and DC is direct current that flows in only one direction; the product that is flowing being electrons. AC power is what fuels our homes. The wires outside of our house are connected at two ends to AC generators. DC is found in batteries and solar cells. Both AC and DC employ magnets to repel electrons. Electrons are negatively charged particles that are one of 3 components that make up an atom. Negative charges will repel negative charges and positive charges will repel positive charges, so one only needs to introduce a negatively charged item next to electrons to force them to move in the opposite direction. Likewise, you can attract electrons by introducing something that is positively charged into their environment drawing the electrons to it. This property of electrons is what allows for AC power to work; that is, they switch directions constantly. The picture to the left is a demonstration of AC power at work. The constant switching of directions is evident in the dotted appearance of the light lines.

DC power was invented by Thomas Edison and first used to power our homes in the late 1800’s. Its main drawback being that in order to receive DC power from a generating station, your home had to be located within a one mile radius of the station. DC power degrades as it moves away from its generating source; the further away, the less power. In addition, it is difficult to convert very high power DC current into the lower power current needed in our homes.

Nikola Tesla discovered AC and sold his design to Westinghouse. AC power degrades very little over 100’s of kilometers. When the power reaches an electrical pole outside our homes, a transformer converts to high voltage (the amount of energy carried with the electrons) to the low voltage needed to fuel our appliances. To convert AC to DC, a device needs an item called a rectifier. Many monorail systems use DC power. In addition, if you have a portable stereo, you may notice a button on the back that can switch from AC to DC; this means that you can power your device by plugging it in (AC) or by using batteries (DC).


Zone vs Domain

Difference between Zone and Domain

Domain name servers store information about part of the domain name space called a zone. The name server is authoritative for a particular zone. A single name server can be authoritative for many zones.

Understanding the difference between a zone and a domain is sometimes confusing. A zone is simply a portion of a domain. For example, the Domain Microsoft.com may contain all of the data for Microsoft.com, Marketing.microsoft.com and Development.microsoft.com. However, the zone Microsoft.com contains only information for Microsoft.com and references to the authoritative name servers for the subdomains.

The zone Microsoft.com can contain the data for subdomains of Microsoft.com if they have not been delegated to another server. For example, Marketing.microsoft.com may manage its own delegated zone. Development.microsoft.com may be managed by the parent, Microsoft.com.

If there are no subdomains, then the zone and domain are essentially the same. In this case the zone contains all data for the domain.


Zip code vs Postal code

Difference between Zip and Postal code

There is no difference as such ,however these are same & people address them as per their convenience.

Only the US uses Zip Codes. Postal Codes are used abroad. It is the same thing even tough they look different for some have letters and numbers and zip codes only numbers


Bluetooth vs ZigBee

Bluetooth and ZigBee: Their similarities and differences


ZigBee 802.15.4 Bluetooth 802.15.1 WiFi 802.11b
Applications: Monitoring and control Cable replacement Web, video email
Data capacity (Kbps): 250 1,000 11,000+
Range (meters): 70 10 100
Battery life years days hours
Nodes per network 255 - 65,000 8 30
Software size (Kbytes): 4 - 32 250 1,000+

ZigBee lacks the bandwidth of other wireless technologies, but uses less power and enables far more devices to be networked.

Bluetooth and ZigBee have much in common. Both are types of IEEE 802.15 "wireless personal-area networks," or WPANs. Both run in the 2.4-GHz unlicensed frequency band, and both use small form factors and low power.

At the Wireless Communications Alliance's February meeting in Silicon Valley, Bhupender Virk, president and CEO of WPAN components maker CompXs, sorted out the application and technical differences between Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) and the ZigBee specification (based on IEEE 802.15.4), which was ratified in December.

ZigBee protocols define a type of sensor network for residential and commercial applications such as heating, air conditioning and lighting control. It combines IEEE 802.15.4, which defines the physical and MAC protocol layers, with network, security and application software layers as specified by the ZigBee Alliance, a consortium of technology companies.

Imagine the freedom if light switches were to become wireless, eliminating the electrical cabling through your walls, for example.

Bluetooth, as you likely know, eliminates cabling between electronic products and accessories, such as between computers and printers or between phones and headsets. Bluetooth users with handhelds or laptops can exchange files, business cards and calendar appointments. Bluetooth is more oriented toward user mobility and eliminating short-distance cabling; ZigBee aims more for grand-scale automation and remote control.

The first ZigBee products are now in interoperability testing through April, says Virk, who expects alliance-certified products to be available in the third quarter (when he says CompXs will ship a ZigBee protocol analyzer). Industry reports imply that, eventually, ZigBee might be built into mobile phones via dual-function ZigBee-Bluetooth chips for remote control of nearly anything you can think of and for buying items from vending machines.

Finally, for the geeks among us, Virk pointed out some technical differences between the two protocols:

Modulation technique
Bluetooth: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
ZigBee: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)

Protocol stack size
Bluetooth: 250K bytes
ZigBee: 28K bytes

Bluetooth: Intended for frequent recharging
ZigBee: Not rechargeable (one reason batteries will last for up to 10 years)

Maximum network speed:
Bluetooth: 1M bit/sec
ZigBee: 250K bit/sec

Network range:
Bluetooth: 1 or 100 meters, depending on radio class
ZigBee: Up to 70 meters

Typical network join time
Bluetooth: 3 seconds
ZigBee: 30 milliseconds

Source: http://www.stevenswater.com/telemetry_com/bluetooth_zigbee_info.aspx


Zakah vs Tax

Zakah and Tax : Conceptual Difference

" Zakah" in the lexicon means a thing which increase gradually. Lisanul Arab, a major book on

the meanings of Arabic words, explain it as "cleanliness, gradual increase, excess, praise". In the

technical Shariah meaning, Zakat means that part of wealth whose payment has been made obligatory by Allah and His Prophet (SM). Similarly, giving of specified part of the wealth who are entitled to get it, is also called Zakat.

Giving this wealth is called Zakat because it cleanses the heart and mind of the payer, it cleanses also his wealth ( in the ultimate economic analysis). It gives increase to the poor in the sense that he gets something for his benefit and his mind is satisfied which is a psychological increase.

On the other hand, Tax is an obligation imposed by the state on the citizens. Taxation is required to cover government expenditure. For a long time, governments imposed taxes to raise revenue only to cover the cost of administration and defence, and in the case of despotic monarchs for personal expenditure of the ruler. Now a days, taxes are no longer levied for defence and administration only, but also for the purpose of furthering social and economic policy of the state.

Similarities and Dissimilarities Between Zakat and Tax

There are some important similarities and dis-similarities between Zakat and Tax.


a) Zakat is liable to be collected by force like tax, if the payer does not pay it willingly. This position is applicable where the state compulsorily collects Zakat, and in modern days, has legislated accordingly. The Quran and the Sunnah make it very clear that it is the obligation of an Islamic state which follows Islam to collect Zakat. An important proof in this regard is the decision of Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), the first head of the state of the Islamic Khilafat, to wage war against those who denied to pay Zakat to the state.

b) Zakat collected in an Islamic state has to be kept in the state Treasury, in a separate account, like tax. Zakat is collected by the state through Zakat officials (Amelina Alaiha). However, if Zakat is collected by Non-government organizations or communities, these should be kept safely as in the case of any public fund.

c) Zakat, like tax, is paid though there is no direct and equivalent economic benefit is obtained by the payer This is a different matter that Zakat payer expects return in the life hereafter and the tax payer may receive some service from the state in return but there is no direct co-relation


a) There are also important conceptual and other differences between Zakat and Tax. Primarily, Zakat is an Ibadah (act of worship) which Allah has made compulsory on human being, to express gratitude to Him and to obtain His nearness (Taqwa). Tax is not the same thing as Zakat. Tax is a social obligation without having special sense of gratitude to Allah or to obtain nearness to Allah while Zakat is essentially a matter between Allah and His servants, but tax has been primarily a matter between citizens and the state authorities..

b) Zakat is based on Nisab, any wealth below a limit is exempted from Zakat. This is not true in case of many taxes in modern times. Concept of exemption is there in case of tax but it is applicable only when and where the Government or Tax authorities specifically prescribe.

c) Zakat is a permanent and regular system. None can change it in any way. On the contrary, most of the taxes undergo change from time to time.

There is difference in the objective and intent between Zakat and Tax. As Allah has said,

"Take from their wealth Charity (Zakat) so that thereby you make them clean and pure and pray for them. Your Prayer (for them) is a source of comfort for them. Allah is All hearing, All-knowing" ... (Tauba : 103)

The intent of Zakat is to make wealth pure ( in moral sense) and cleanse the heart of human beings from greed and hoarding. The object of Zakat is spiritual as well as economic. But the object of tax is much more mundane and worldly. Tax could never achieve the moral and spiritual objectives of Zakat in any time of history.

There is difference between Zakat and tax in respect of the utilisation of respective fund whereas tax can be spent for any purpose. Zakat is meant to be spent for specified objectives which are mainly provision for the poor (poverty alleviation), to free debtors from the debt, to free the people in bondage, for the way farer and for the good of the people i.e. Fi Sabi Lillah.