Sep 4, 2009

Pakistan Provinces


Pakistan stretches from the Arabian Sea to the mountainous regions of Central Asia in the north.

The beauty of this land lies in its sharp contrasts, rugged mountains, rolling plains, scorching deserts and vast expanse of virtually unspoiled beaches.

As varied as its topography is the rich ethnic diversity of its people. A nation whose racial and cultural heritage embodies the distinct strains of many invaders and settlers who streamed through the subcontinent throughout its long and turbulent history.

Though Pakistan gained independence from British India in 1947, the history of this Land of the pure (Pak implies pure) dates back to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization of 5000 year B. C. History books record the absorbing discovery of the riches and wonders of the subcontinent by explorers and foreign invaders. From the time Alexander the Great thundered through the historic Khyber Pass to set up camp along the River Indus, down through the ages, to the Arab and Persian conquerors who left the most significant impression on the language and creed of the people, to the British, Portuguese and Dutch merchant colonialists who opened up the trade potential of the region to the world.

The years since independence have continued to be a period of discovery for Pakistan, as it realized the tremendous growth resources. These years have seen a steady rise in industrialization and modernization of the traditional agricultural sector. With the new economic liberalization, use of modern technology and ambitious export aspirations, Pakistan is poised to join the realm of the fastest developing industrialized countries of Asia.

There is an ever-increasing demand for quality in the international market, and young enterprising Pakistanis are eager to avail the extremely bright prospects for trade. Government incentives to exporters are a further encouragement to local entrepreneurs to explore new markets beyond the borders.

Four Provinces of Pakistan

  • Punjab
  • Sindh
  • NWFP
  • Balochistan
  • Northern Areas


The River Indus and its five tributaries flow through the lush green plains of the Punjab, giving the province its name (the word Punj means five, ab means water).

The Punjab is the most populous province and the most productive agricultural region of the country.

Verdant fields and vast orchards produce bumper harvests of staple foods such as rice, wheat, cotton, fruits and vegetables.

Punjabis are a hardy race, strong on tradition and dignity. Many of the sons of this soil serve the nation as brave and devoted soldiers in the armed forces.

Lahore, the provincial capital, retains the strongest impression of the grandeur of the Mughal era. The famous Mughal emperors loved this city and bequeathed to it a magnificent architectural legacy in mosques, mausoleums and stately gardens. These monuments of the past are well-preserved as popular tourist attractions.

Lahore is also the cultural centre of Pakistan and continues to provide the nation with eminent philosophers, poets, writers and sportsmen.

Gifted craftsmen create traditional handicrafts with a skill and inspiration that is passed on from generations. Centuries of tradition are interwoven in the intricate designs of the famous carpets and dhurries of Lahore, in the exquisite ceramics of Multan and the many varieties of handicrafts produced in cottage industries throughout the province.


Sindh is a land of many contrasts, steeped in the mystique of Sufi traditions, preserving remnants of an ancient civilisation at Moenjodaro, and yet with the definite mark of urbanity in its bustling cities.

This contrast is visible in the land itself from the vast coastline of the Arabian Sea, to the great deserts of Thar and Kohistan, and small fertile belts along the River Indus.

There is a riotous mix of the old and the modern in Karachi, the capital of the province, where crude camel and donkey carts and horse carriages jostle with motor vehicles and imposing modern constructions exist beside the crumbling facades and splendid architecture of the British era.

Apart from Sindhis, a large proportion of the population are ethnic and religious minorities. Hindus, Christians and Zoroastrians add to the colourful cosmopolitan flavour of the province.

The handicrafts produced in the region have a distinct local character. Expert craftsmen enfuse the magic of traditions in exquisite creations of clay, pottery, carved furniture, and traditional embroidery work.

NWFP (North West Frontier Province)

The NWFP (North West Frontier Province) has welcomed many conquerors, traders and settlers from times immemorial who entered the Indian subcontinent through the historic Khyber Pass. A true gateway to the East, the pass has echoed with the advance of such great adventurers as Alexander the Great, Mehmood Ghaznavi, Muhammad Ghory and Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty

Stretching from the Hindukush mountains in the northwest to the Derajat Basin in the south, the mainly rocky terrain gives way to unexpected belts of green valleys. Some of the most breathtaking scenery is to be enjoyed in the valleys of Swat, Gilgit, Kalash and Hunza. Tourists, trekkers and mountain climbers flock here in the summer to savour the beauty of nature and the quaint ethnicity of the local tribesmen. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) to the northwest of the province, border on Afghanistan.

The Pathans, who are the main inhabitants of the province, are a proud and fiercely independent people. Historically, they have resisted domination from other races with a rugged ferocity reminiscent of the daunting mountains of their homeland. But friendly visitors to this land will receive the warmth of hospitality. The capital, Peshawar, is perhaps the oldest city in Pakistan and in its narrow alleys and bazaars one can catch colourful glimpses of the unique culture and handicrafts of the frontier people. Particularly famous are the beautiful tapestries of Swat, hand-made guns of Darra, and intricately crafted copper and brassware


The local population comprises hardworking people, accustomed to the extreme climatic and arid conditions of the land. They are ethnically diverse people of Pathan, Baloch and Barohi origin, intermingled with other migrant races who have been attracted by the mining prospects in the province.

Balochistan is richly endowed with mineral resources and major occupations are in iron and coal mining and oil and gas explorations.

The country’s largest natural gas reservoir is located here at Sui, which, when discovered in 1952, was the largest in Asia.

Balochistan is famous for its exotic fruits. Many varieties of fresh and dry fruits are supplied to the teeming bazaars of Quetta, the provincial capital, as well as around the country. Handicrafts of beautiful and intricate craftsmanship are produced here the most typical of the region being the exquisite mirror work, embroidery, fine quality precious stones and marble works.

Northern Areas

The whole of the Northern Region of Pakistan is very beautiful and its scenic places like Swat, Kalam, Naran, Bhurban, Murree and the set of Galiyats are very popular with the local and foreign tourists. Howerver, the real beauty of this tough and mountainous terrain spreads furthers north in the districts of Gilgit, Skardu, Diamer, Ghizer, and Ghanche, know as Northern Areas, over an area of 72,500 sq. Kilometers.

Northern Areas constitute a pristine home for about one million people. They are connected to Pakistan and the outside world through the Karakorrum Highway (KKH), nicknamed as the Silk Route. The KKH, a marvelous creation of Chinese and Pakistani engineers, is in itself the 8th wonder of the world and a source of great tourist attraction. The Northern Areas, connected to China through the KKH, provide a vast potential in tourism & related activities, trade expansion, minerals, and cottage industries.

Pakistan has an amazing mountain heritage with the four ranges of Hindukush. Pamir, Karakorrum, and the Great Himalayas converging here. Amongst them, they contain the world's densest concentration of high peaks (five out of 14 highest) in their fold which are:-

Name of the Peak Height – Feet/Meters

Godwin Austin (k-2) 28,251/8,611

Nanga Parbat 26,660/8,125

Gasherbrum-I 26,470/8,068

BroadPeak 26,400/8,407

Gasherbrum-II 26,360/8,035

There are 42 other peaks which are higher than all the highest peaks of the other continents. In all, Pakistan has over 700 peaks above 6000 meters in height and over 160 peaks above 7000 meters

Besides the high mountains, the Northern Areas have the world’s longest glaciers including the Godwin Austin, Abruzzin and Baltoro which meet at Concordia forming the largest glacial lake at a high of 4720 meters. The enchanting valleys of Hunza, Shigar, Khaplu, Lshkuman, Nalar, Gilgit, Skardu, Chitral, and Dir and the glacial lakes like Kachura, Satpara, Lalusar, and Saiful Muluk add unmatched grandeur to the beauty of the rugged mountains.

The Northern Areas with its flora and fauna; the wildlife which can be seen in the form of snow leopards, ibexes and urials; and the variety of people who live in these areas with their cultural heritage and millennia-old civilizations form a paradise for the tourists, trekkers, and mountaineers from all around the world. The Government of Pakistan is aware that preservation of these mountains and the future of its tourism industry are inter-linked.

Promotion of tourism and development of tourism - related infrastructure in the Northern Areas thus offer vast opportunities for investors both from local and foreign origin. These facilities could be the creation of hotel accommodation in the most frequented places, the development of ski resorts, fixation of chair lifts, mountain climbing facilities, and the like.

Agriculture also forms a potential area for investment in the shape of :-

  • Production, preservation & marketing of quality fruits and vegetables.
  • Production of vegetable seeds;
  • Livestock, dairy & poultry farming,
  • Fish/trout farming, and the
  • Use of herbs for medicinal purposes.

Another field which promises profitable investment in Northern Areas is the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources and precious stones. Although the quantitative potential has yet to be established there are numerous kinds of minerals like gold, ruby, emerald, aquamarine, topaz, tourmaline etc. which can be gainfully exploited. Some industrial minerals like marble, granite, mica, feldspar, barite, China clay, copper, lead, antimony etc. are also found in large deposit. Based on these resources, cement industry, granite cutting & polishing, paint industry, pottery and ceramics etc. can be established.

The most readily available opportunity for investment is however, in the hydropower sector. At present only half of the Northern Areas requirement for electricity is met through 79 mini and small hydel power plants. Atleast 10 more power planets are needed 2 each in teh Districts of Gilgit, Skardu and Diamer, 3 in District Ghizer, and one mini unit in Ghanche district. The units in Gilgit and Skardu would produce 43 Megawatt each while the units in Diamer will each be 10 MW and that in Ghizer 9 MW. Additionally, some national level power plants like Doyan Astore (425 MW), Basha-DMR (3400-MW) and Bunji-Indus (1400 MW) are also being studied in Northern Areas.

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People of India

Indian People

People of few countries in the world are as diverse and complex as India. People in various parts of India differ in culture, traditions, values, habits, lifestyles and food. Yet they are Indian and their Indian-ness can be instantly recognised. Way of living of Indian people has evolved with time. In past India came under various influences and all of them

Indian people speak 17 major languages which have 844 dialects. Sanskrit is the mother of most North Indian languages. Dravidian vernaculars have their own history. English is the language of official communication while Hindi, spoken by approximate 40% of the people, is the national language.

Indian people have rich literary heritage. Indian literature harks back thousands of years to the Vedic hymns. Ancient Indians had produced great works of philosophy and religious doctrine. Indian classics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Vedas, Upnashiads, Panchatantra and teh Jataka tales are matchless. Sangam literature is the mirror of contemporary Tamil society. Kalidasa and Bhasa have produced some immortal literary works.

Family Values
Indian families have deep-rooted family values. The Indians look their parents and elders with regard. Family elders would greatly care about young ones. An Indian wife would serve here husband before she herself sits to eat. They believe in sharing their feelings, and stand behind each other in happiness and sorrow. They celebrate their festivals with lot of passion.

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People of Pakistan

People of Pakistan

Population: 144,616,639 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.47% (male 30,131,400; female 28,391,891)

15-64 years: 55.42% (male 40,977,543; female 39,164,663)

65 years and over: 4.11% (male 2,918,872; female 3,032,270) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.11% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 31.21 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 9.26 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female

total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 80.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.45 years

male: 60.61 years

female: 62.32 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.41 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 74,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 6,500 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.7%

male: 55.3%

female: 29% (1998)

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Pakistan Music

Music of Pakistan
By far the most dynamic and music of Pakistan is qawwali, which has been internationally popularized by stars like Nusrat Ali Khan. Qawwali, in multiple forms, is widespread throughout Pakistan and Northern India.

Qawwali refers to both the performance and the genre of music. Qawwals typically consist of a lead vocalist, two back-up vocalists and any number of percussionists. Qawwalis are traditionally led by a sheikh and are meant to help the audience realize the mystical ideals of Sufi Islam. Amir Khusrau is said to have invented qawwali in the 13th century; the legendary poet and composer is also said to have invented the tabla and sitar. The idea of music (sama) inspiring an understanding and love for the divine and communication with spiritual guides is known from at least the 9th century. Orthodox Muslims sometimes criticize qawwali for its erotic imagery and sometimes frank sensuality.

Qawwali is similar to Hindustani musical genres; it has three components: a rhythm (traditionally played on the dholak), the melodic line of the vocals, and the pitch of the melody which is reinforced on harmonium. Poetic verses are usually mixed with a chorus and instrumental passages. Traditional languages used include Persian and an ancient form of Hindi called braj bhasha, as well as Punjabi, Urdu and Arabic.

The ancient tradition of tarana, a rhythmic series of nonsensical syllables with meaning only to the singers, if anyone, has helped lead a fusion with qawwali and jazz, due to the parallel practice of scat singing. Qawwali fusion with filmi and Western pop music have achieved some popularity, with attendant criticism from purists for allegedly watering down the sacred sound of qawwali. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Sabri Brothers and Rizwan-Muazzam Qawwali Group have become especially popular, especially after Nusrat's collaborations with Michael Brook (a Canadian producer), resulting in the unexpected hit of "Mustt Mustt", remixed by Massive Attack and popularized by its use in a Coca-Cola television commercial.

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India Music

India Music

Music has always been instrumental in defining Indian culture. Form of music in India like classical, folk and tribal are indispensably linked to Indian way of life. Here is brief information on various styles of music in India.

Classical Music
Indian classical music can be segregated into two parts : Hindustani and Carnatic. It is considered one of the most complex and complete musical systems ever evolved. Origin of Indian classical music goes back to the vedas. Samaveda, one of the vedas, describes music in detail. Hindustani classical music is related to north India, while Carnatic music has its roots in southern part of the country.

Hindustani Classical
Hindustani classical music is based on 8 classical notes: Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa. It can be divided into two types: instrumental and vocal. Outside the Indian subcontinent instrumental classical music is more popular. Dhrupad, khayal and thumri are some major vocal forms-cum-styles related to Hindustani classical music.

In any signature performance of Hindustani Music, the musician usally begins with a slow raga, known as alap. Once the raga establishes itself, the ornamentation around the mode becomes rhythmical. And then, the tal comes on the stage.

Carnatic music is the classical music of southern India. Different schools of Carnatic music are based on the same ragas, numbering around 300. Instruments mainly used are the veena, flute, violin and for rhyth, the mridangam and the ghatam. In comparison to Hindustani classical music, the Carnatic music is more influenced by theory and has follows the rules strictly. It lays stress on the richness of voice rather than the instruments.

Folk Music
Thanks to extreme cultural diversity, India has an array of folk music styles. This type of music is essential component of social events such as weddings, birthdays and engagements. Plethora of songs are used on such occasions. Instruments like dholak, ektar, dotar, saringda and santur are used. Dance is often associated with folk music. Bhangra, Lavani, Dandiya and Garba are few more popular forms of dance-oriented folk music. These are associated with the states of Punjab, Maharashtra and Gujarat respectively.

Movie Music
Movies are very popular with Indian masses. And large number of music lovers in India are fond of Indian film music. Few Indian films are without songs which play to the preferences of the common people. Some well-known playback singers on Indian movie stage are Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Kishore Kumar, Mukesh and Asha Bhonsle.

Tribal Music
The tribal music is associated with the tribals living in the hilly and jungle regions. It is different from folk music, and shows tribal culture as it was even thousands of years ago. It is sung mainly in the tribal areas of Indian like Orissa and Chhatisgarh.

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India Food

Food of India

Religious Influences
Although a number of religions exist in India, the two cultures that have influenced Indian cooking and food habits are the Hindu and the Muslim traditions. Each new wave of settlers brought with them their own culinary practices. However, over time they adopted a lot of specialties and cooking methods from the Indian cuisine and blended the two to perfection. The Portuguese, the Persians and the British made important contributions to the Indian culinary scene. It was the British who started the commercial cultivation of tea in India.

The Hindu vegetarian tradition is widespread in India, although many Hindus eat meat now. The Muslim tradition is most evident in the cooking of meats. Mughlai food, kababs, rich Kormas (curries) and nargisi koftas (meatballs), the biryani (a layered rice and meat preparation), rogan josh, and preparations from the clay over or tandoor like tandoori rotis and tandoori chicken are all important contributions made by Muslim settlers in India.

North Indian Food
A typical North-Indian meal would consist of chapatis or rotis (unleavened bread baked on a griddle) or paranthas (unleavened bread fried on a griddle), rice and an assortment of assessories like dals, friend vegetables, curries, curd, chutney, and pickles. For dessert one could choose from the wide array of sweetmeats from Bengal like rasagulla, sandesh, rasamalai and gulab-jamuns. North Indian desserts are very similar in taste as they are derived from a milk pudding or rice base and are usually soaked in syrup. Kheer is a form of rice pudding, shahi tukra or bread pudding and kulfi, a nutty ice cream are other common northern desserts.

South Indian Food
South Indian food is largely non-greasy, roasted and steamed. Rice is the staple diet and forms the basis of every meal. It is usually served with sambhar, rasam (a thin soup), dry and curried vegetables and a curd preparation called pachadi. Coconut is an important ingredient in all South Indian food. The South Indian dosa (rice pancakes), idli (steamed rice cakes) and vada, which is made of fermented rice and dal, are now popular throughout the country. The popular dishes from Kerala are appams (a rice pancake) and thick stews. Desserts from the south include the Mysore pak and the creamy payasum.

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Pakistan Food

Pakistan Food

Basic Subsistence:
At its simplest, Pakistani cooking today consists of staple foods which are cheap and abundant. Wheat and other flour products are the mainstay of the diet, one familiar form being CHAPATI, an unleavened bread akin to a Mexican tortilla. This is made with dough prepared from whole wheat flour.

Another basic food is LASSI, milk from which curds and butterfat have been removed. Vegetables, usually seasonal, lentils are commonly used. Families with larger incomes eat more meat, eggs and fruits. And the more affluent cook with GHEE, which is clarified butter, instead of with vegetable oil.

From the earliest times, the imaginative - and sometimes heavy - use of spices, herbs, seeds, and flavorings and seasonings have helped cooks transform rather ordinary staple foods into an exotic cuisine.

Consider some of the most common of these in wide use in Pakistan today: chilli powder, turmeric, garlic, paprika, black pepper, red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cardamom, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, mace, nutmeg, poppyseeds, aniseed, almonds, pistachios, and yogurt.

Their use in a wide range of pickles, chutneys, preserves, and sauces, together with curries of all descriptions and special treatment for meats, sea, food, vegetables and lentils, gives Pakistani cooking much of its distinctive character.

Cultural influences, whether religious precepts, practices, and ceremonies or local traditions, or even esthetic preferences, have made their contribution toward the evolution of Pakistani cuisine.

The Influence Of Islam:
The spread of Islam to what is now Pakistan, starting in the Eighth Century, has given a basic character to the food of the people. The Quranic injunctions against eating pork or drinking alcoholic beverages has channeled tastes and appetites in other directions. Lamb, beef, chicken and fish are basic foods, although their consumption by persons of low income is modest and often ceremonial.

Some of the Muslim feasts involve special dishes. Eid-ul-Adha, which commemorates the Prophet Ibrahim's readiness to obey God even tothe point of being willing to sacrifice his son, is observed by the sacrifice of a goat, a lamb, or a cow from which special dishes are made.

On Eid-ul-Fitr, which marks the end of RAMZAN, the month of fasting in the Islamic Calender, the serving of a special dessert of vermicelli cooked in milk is a must. Almond and pistachios are added as decorations as is the silver foil. The latter is so thin that it will disintegrate unless it is immediately transferred from the protective layers of paper onto the dish.

Food And The Moghul Emperors:
Another major influence in the development of Pakistani cookery was the establishment of the Moghul Empire starting in 1526. The opulent tastes exhibited by such Emperors as Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb in art, architecture, music, dance, and jewelry was also extended to food.

A style of cookery called Moghlai' evolved at the Moghul court and even today it remains centered in Lahore. Some latter-day and widely known survivors of court cookery are, for example, chicken tandoori, a dish in which chicken is cooked at low temperatures in special ovens called TANDOORS, and murgh musallum' in which the whole chickens are roasted with special spices and ingredients. SHAHI TUKRA, a dessert of sliced bread, milk, cream, sugar and saffron, is another left-over from the days of the Moghuls.

Perhaps the ultimate Moghul cuisine was reached when the imperial chefs perfected the recipes for desserts made from ginger and garlic. Ginger and garlic puddings are still made in some homes for truly special occasions.

Fruit drinks, squeezed from pomegranates, apples, melons, and mangoes, and called SHARBAT, are an important part of the Moghlai cuisine and, indeed, the inspiration for American "sherberts."

Other Influences:
Cookery in Pakistan has always had a regional character, with each of the four provinces offering special dishes. In the Punjab, for example, the Moghlai' cuisine using tandoor ovens and elaborate preparations is important. In Baluchistan, cooks use the SAJJI method of barbecuing whole lambs and stick bread in a deep pit.

BUNDA PALA (fish) is a well known delicacy of Sind. The fish is cleaned and stuffed with a paste made from a variety of spices and herbs, including red pepper, garlic, ginger, and dried pomegranate seeds. It is then wrapped in cloth and is buried three feet deep in hot sand under the sun. There it stays baking for four to five hours from late morning to early afternoon. THANDAL, made from milk and a paste of fresh almonds, is a popular drink. Cooking in the Northwest Frontier Province is a great deal plainer and involves the heavy use of lamb.

Ceremonial occasions such as weddings have inspired a number of fancy dishes. A traditional dish at marriage feasts, for example, is chicken curry with either PILAU or BIRYANI. FIRINI, made from cream of rice and milk, is an equally traditional wedding dessert. It is served in clay saucers topped by silver foil. At Zoroastrian (Parsi) weddings, which are not frequent because so few followers of this ancient Iranian religion live in Pakistan, a special fish dish is served. This is PATRANI MACHCHI, consisting of sole, plaice, or a local fish called pomfret, wrapped in banana leaves, steamed or fried, and then baked slowly for half an hour.

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India Pictures

India Pictures

India is a vast country with plenty of geographical diversity. Variety of various regions in India is extraordinary and the same is true about culture. Lifestyle of every part of India differs from the other. India has variety of faces and all these faces are fascinating. Enjoy all the faces of India in our India pictures/photo gallery.

Hawa Mahal National Animal Taj Mahal
Hawa Mahal National Animal Taj Mahal
Khajuraho Temples Konark Sun Temple Indian Culture
Khajuraho Temples Konark Sun Temple Indian Culture
indian-religion Goa Indian Culture
Indian Religion Goa Indian Culture
Sabarmati Aashram Jantar Mantar Red Fort
Sabarmati Aashram Jantar Mantar Red Fort

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Pakistan pictures

Architecture of Pakistan Monuments in Pakistan Pakistani Art
Pakistan Architecture:
The ancient architecture of Pakistan is highlighted mainly by tombs and mosques.
Pakistan Monuments:
The historical monuments in Pakistan epitomize the ancient Islamic art patterns.
Pakistan Art:
The art forms for decorating the architectures in Pakistan showcases exquisite work of stone carvings.
Transport in Pakistan Pakistan Tourism Religions in Pakistan
Pakistan Transport:
Models of transport in Pakistan specially passenger Buses are colorfully decorated.
Pakistan Tourism:
With diverse geography, Pakistan is emerging fast among the hot travel destinations in the world.
Pakistan Religions:
After Indonesia, Pakistan is the second most Muslim populous country in the world.
History of Pakistan Culture of Pakistan Pakistani Music
Pakistan History:
An ancient region of Indus in Pakistan houses remains of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Pakistan Culture:
Pakistan has a rich blend of culture of different ethnicities from Islamic and non-islamic religions.
Music of Pakistan:
Pakistani music ranges in diverse forms, right from provincial folk music to the modern western.
Pakistani Food Pakistan Climate Pakistan Population
Pakistani Food:
The cuisine of Pakistan is mix bag of culinary from Middle-East, India, Iran and Afghanistan.
Pakistan Climate:
Climatic conditions in Pakistan shows sandy deserts, beaches and the icy-hills of the Himalayas.
Pakistan Population:
The population of 132,352,279 (1998) Pakistan is the 6th most populous country in the world.

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India Weather

India Weather

India is under the summers most part of the year. Summer season starts from April and continues till mid-July. Indian summer means scorching heat and temperatures in several part of the country reach even 48C. One would wonder whether there would be any place in Indian to visit in summers.

In contrast winters are short. North India becomes chilly in winter season while South India is pleasant. Winters are normally from November to February. The third major season in India is monsoon which commences from mid-July and remains till September.

Tourist places in India are segregated below in accordance with their accessibility and the attraction they possess for the tourists in various seasons:

Srinagar, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonmarg, Srinagar

Nainital, Chamoli, Dehradun, Mussoorie, Ranikhet, Valley of Flowers, Hindu pilgrimage tour including Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, Yamnotri and Amarnath Yatra

Himachal Pradesh
Shimla, Kullu Manali, Dharamsala, Chail, Kasauli, Kangra, Chamba

Other States
Mount Abu in Rajasthan, Ooty and Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu, Darjeeling in West Bengal, Khandala and Lonawala in Maharashtra, Anantagiri in Andhra Pradesh, Coorg in Karnatka and Ladakh

Hot tourist destinations in India like states of Rajasthan, Kerala and Goa are ideal when visited in winter. Capital Delhi, commercial capital Mumbai and Agra are also recommended to be visited in winters. People who desire to witness snowfall do visit hill stations in winters.

» Meghalaya, an extremely picturesque state, is positively affected by monsoon. Visit it in the monsoons and see the magic.
» Kota in Rajasthan wears fascinating look in monsoon season.
» Mandu in Madhya Pradesh. View of Narmada in Madhya Pradesh is very interesting.
» Nalasarovar Bird Sanctuary in Gujarat. Thousands of migratory waterfowl assemble in this sanctuary right after the Indian monsoon season.

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Pakistan Weather

Pakistan Weather

Pakistan is divided into five distinct geographic regions: The Thar Desert and Lower Indus Valley in the south with arid valleys and rocky hills; The Baluchistan Plateau toward the west with elevation between 1,000 and 3,000 feet (300-900 meters) and covering nearly half the nation's territory; The Indus Basin, an irrigated agricultural area in the northeast; The Northwest Frontier, an area of barren mountains and irrigated valleys bordering Afghanistan; and The Far North with snowcapped mountains reaching high elevations.

Seasonal temperatures vary widely in these five regions. With the exception of the Far North, summers are hot throughout the country with temperatures ranging to 90-120°F (32-49°C) and little nighttime relief. Trade winds provide some relief during the hot and humid summers in Karachi and a brief cool season comes between December and February. In Lahore, Islamabad, and Peshawar a distinct winter season brings daytime temperatures of 60°F (16°C) or less, cold nights, and - in Islamabad and Peshawar - frequent morning frost does occur during the stark winter season. Altitude governs climate in the Far North, with pleasant summers in the lower regions and perpetual snow in the higher mountains.

The average annual rainfall varies from 6 inches (40 cm) in Karachi, 15 (38 cm) in Peshawar, 18 (46 cm) in Lahore, to about 30 (76 cm) in Islamabad. Most rain falls during the summer monsoon from July to September, although parts of the Northwest Frontier and the Indus Basin experience a moderate winter rainy season as well.

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Currency of India

The rupee (Hindi: रुपया) (code: INR) is the currency of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The most commonly used symbols for the rupee are Rs, ₨ and रू. The ISO 4217 code for the Indian rupee is INR. On 5 March 2009 the Indian Government announced a contest to create a symbol for the Rupee. The modern rupee is subdivided into 100 paise (singular paisa).

In most parts of India, the rupee is known as the rupee, rupaya (Hindi), roopayi in Telugu(రూపాయి) and Kannada(ರೂಪಾಯಿ), rubai in Tamil(ரூபாய்), roopa in Malayalam(രൂപ), rupaye in Marathi (रुपये) or one of the other terms derived from the Sanskrit rupyakam (Devanagari: रूप्यकं), raupya meaning silver; rupyakam meaning (coin) of silver. However, in West Bengal, Tripura, Orissa, and Assam, the Indian rupee is officially known by names derived from the Sanskrit Tanka. Thus, the rupee is called টাকা Taka in Bengali, টকা tôka in Assamese, and Tôngka in Oriya, with the symbol T, and is written as such on Indian banknotes.

On 26 July 2009, the exchange rate was Rs.48.16 to US$1.


India was one of the earliest issuers of coins (circa 6th century BC). The first "rupee" is believed to have been introduced by Sher Shah Suri (1486-1545), based on a ratio of 40 copper pieces (paisa) per rupee. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees were those by the Bank of Hindustan (1770-1832), the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (1773-75, established by Warren Hastings) and the Bengal Bank (1784-91), amongst others.

During British rule, and the first decade of independence, 1 damidi(pie)=0.520833paise 1 kani(pice) =1.5625paise 1 paraka =3.125paise 1 anna =6.25paise 1 beda =12.5paise 1 pavala =25paise 1 artharupee =50paise 1 rupee =100paise

Until 1815, the Madras Presidency also issued a currency based on the fanam, with 12 fanams equal to the rupee.

Historically, the rupee, derived from the Sanskrit word raupya, which means silver, was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century, when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard. The discovery of vast quantities of silver in the U.S. and various European colonies resulted in a decline in the relative value of silver to gold. Suddenly the standard currency of India could not buy as much from the outside world. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee."

In 1898, the rupee was tied to the gold standard through the British pound by pegging the rupee at a value of 1 shilling 4 pence (i.e., 15 rupees = 1 pound). In 1920, the rupee was increased in value to 2 shillings (10 rupees = 1 pound). However, in 1927, the peg was once more reduced, this time to 1 shilling 6 pence (13⅓ rupees = 1 pound). This peg was maintained until 1966, when the rupee was devalued and pegged to the U.S. dollar at a rate of 7.5 rupees = 1 dollar (at the time, the rupee became equal to 11.4 British pence). This peg lasted until the U.S. dollar devalued in 1971.

The Indian rupee replaced the Danish Indian rupee in 1845, the French Indian rupee in 1954 and the Portuguese Indian escudo in 1961. Following independence in 1947, the Indian rupee replaced all the currencies of the previously autonomous states. Some of these states had issued rupees equal to those issued by the British (such as the Travancore rupee). Other currencies included the Hyderabad rupee and the Kutch kori.

In 1957, decimalisation occurred and the rupee was divided into 100 naye paise (Hindi for "new paise"). In 1964, the initial "naye" was dropped. Many still refer to 25, 50 and 75 paise as 4, 8 and 12 annas respectively, not unlike the usage of "bit" in American English for ⅛ dollar.

In March 2009 the Indian Finance Ministry launched a public competition to select a symbol for the currency.


East India Company, -1862

The three Presidencies established by the British East India Company (Bengal, Bombay and Madras) each issued their own coinages up to 1835. All three issued rupees together with fractions down to ⅛ and 116 rupee in silver. Madras also issued 2 rupees coins.

Copper denominations were more varied. Bengal issued 1 pie, ½, 1 and 2 paise. Bombay issued 1 pie, ¼, ½, 1, 1½, 2 and 4 paise. In Madras, there were copper coins for 2, 4 pies, 1, 2 and 4 paisa, with the first two denominated as ½ and 1 dub or 196 and 148 rupee. Note that Madras also issued the Madras fanam until 1815.

All three Presidencies issued gold mohurs and fractions of mohurs, including 116, ⅛, ¼ and ½ in Bengal, 115 (a gold rupee) and ⅓ (pancia) in Bombay and ¼, ⅓ and ½ in Madras.

In 1835, a single coinage for the EIC was introduced. It consisted of copper 112, ¼ and ½ anna, silver ¼, ½ and 1 rupee and gold 1 and 2 mohurs. In 1841, silver 2 annas were added, followed by copper ½ pice in 1853. The coinage of the EIC continued to be issued until 1862, even after the Company had been taken over by the Crown.

Regal Issues, 1862-1947

In 1862, coins were introduced which are referred to as Regal issues. They bore the portrait of Queen Victoria and the designation "India". Denominations were 112 anna, ½ pice, ¼ and ½ anna (all in copper), 2 annas, ¼, ½ and 1 rupee (silver) and 5 and 10 rupees and 1 mohur (gold). The gold denominations ceased production in 1891 while no ½ anna coins were issued dated later than 1877.

In 1906, bronze replaced copper for the lowest three denominations and in 1907, a cupro-nickel 1 anna was introduced. In 1918 and 1919, cupro-nickel 2, 4 and 8 annas were introduced, although the 4 and 8 annas coins were only issued until 1921 and did not replace their silver equivalents. Also in 1918, the Bombay mint struck gold sovereigns and 15 rupee coins identical in size to the sovereigns as an emergency measure due to the First World War.

In the early 1940s, several changes were implemented. The 112 anna and ½ pice ceased production, the ¼ anna was changed to a bronze, holed coin, cupro-nickel and nickel-brass ½ anna coins were introduced, nickel-brass was used to produce some 1 and 2 annas coins, and the composition of the silver coins was reduced from 91.7% to 50%. The last of the regal issues were cupro-nickel ¼, ½ and 1 rupee pieces minted in 1946 and 1947.

Independent Issues, Predecimal, 1950-1957

India’s first coins after independence were issued in 1950. They were 1 pice, ½, 1 and 2 annas, ¼, ½ and 1 rupee denominations. The sizes and compositions were the same as the final Regal issues, except for the 1 pice, which was bronze but not holed.

Independent Issues, Decimal, 1957-

The first decimal issues of India consisted of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 naye paise and 1 rupee. The 1 naya paisa was bronze, the 2, 5 and 10 naye paise were cupro-nickel and the 25 and 50 naye paise and 1 rupee were nickel. In 1964, the word naya(e) was removed from all the coins. Between 1964 and 1967, aluminium 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 paise were introduced. In 1968, nickel-brass 20 paise were introduced, replaced by aluminium coins in 1982. Between 1972 and 1975, cupro-nickel replaced nickel in the 25 and 50 paise and the 1 rupee. In 1982, cupro-nickel 2 rupees coins were introduced. In 1988, stainless steel 10, 25 and 50 paise were introduced, followed by 1 rupee coins in 1992. Also in 1992, the 5 rupee coin was introduced.

Between 2005 and 2008, new, lighter 50 paise,1, 2 and 5 rupee coins were introduced, all struck in ferritic stainless steel. The move was prompted by the melting down of older coins whose face value was less than their scrap value.

The coins commonly in circulation are 50 paise, 1, 2 and 5 rupees. Although they remain valid, 5, 10, 20 and 25 paise coins have become increasingly rare in regular usage.

Circulating Coins
Value Technical parameters Description Date of
Diameter Mass Composition Shape Obverse Reverse first minting last minting
5 paise 22 mm (diagonal) 1.5 g Aluminium Square Emblem of India Value 1957 1994
10 paise 16 mm 2 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular 1961 1998
20 paise 27 mm (longest) 2.2 g Aluminium Hexagon 1982 1994
25 paise 19 mm 2.83 g Ferritic stainless steel Circular Emblem of India, value Rhinoceros 1973
50 paise 22 mm 3.79 g circular Value, Hand showing thumb -
Re. 1 25 mm 4.85 g circular Value, Hand showing thumb 2005 -
Rs. 2 27 mm 5.62 g circular Value, Hand showing 2 fingers 2005 -
Rs. 5 23 mm 6 g circular Value, wavy lines 2007 -
Rs. 10 25 mm 9 g stainless steel, copper circular Value, wavy lines - 2009
For table standards, see the coin specification table.

The coins are minted at the four locations of the India Government Mint.Note the coins 1,2,5 rupees have been minted since independence.The coins minted with the "Hand Picture" are 2005 onwards.


British India, 1861-1947

In 1861, the Government of India introduced its first paper money, 10 rupee notes. These were followed by 20 rupee notes in 1864, 5 rupees in 1872, 10,000 rupees in 1899, 100 rupees in 1900, 50 rupees in 1905, 500 rupees in 1907 and 1000 rupees in 1909. In 1917, 1 and 2½ rupees notes were introduced.

The Reserve Bank of India began note production in 1938, issuing 2, 5, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 rupee notes, while the Government continued to issue 1 rupee notes.

Independent Issues, 1949-

After independence, new designs were introduced to remove the portrait of the King. The government continued to issue the 1 rupee note, while the Reserve Bank issued other denominations, including the 5000 and 10,000 rupee notes introduced in 1949. In the 1970s, 20 and 50 rupee notes were introduced but denominations higher than 100 rupees were demonetized in 1978. In 1987, the 500 rupee note was introduced, followed by the 1000 rupees in 2000.

Currently Circulating Notes

Mahatma Gandhi Series
Image Obverse Value Dimensions Main Colour Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse
Rs. 5 117 × 63 mm Green Mahatma Gandhi Tractor 2002
Rs. 10 137 × 63 mm Orange-violet Rhinoceros, elephant, tiger 1996
Rs. 20 147 × 63 mm Red-orange Palm trees 2002
Rs. 50 147 × 73 mm Violet Parliament of India 1997
Rs. 100 157 × 73 mm Blue-green at centre, brown-purple at 2 sides Himalaya Mountains 1996
Rs. 500 167 × 73 mm Olive and yellow Dandi March 1997
< --> Rs. 1000 177 × 73 mm Amber-Red Economy of India 2000
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

The current series, which began in 1996, is called the Mahatma Gandhi series. Currency notes are printed at the Currency Note Press, Nashik, Bank Note Press, Dewas, Bharatiya Note Mudra Nigam (P) Limited presses at Salboni and Mysore and at the Watermark Paper Manufacturing Mill, Hoshangabad.

Each banknote has its amount written in 17 languages (English & Hindi on the front, and 15 others on the back) illustrating the diversity of the country. ATMs usually give Rs. 100, Rs. 500, and Rs. 1000 notes. Rs. 1000 notes are analogous to the higher valued notes of the United States dollar and the euro.

In recent years, the banknotes were slightly modified to include see through registration on the left side of obverse. In addition, the year is now printed on the reverse. EURion constellation was added to Rs. 100. The revised Rs. 10, 20 were issued in 2006, and Rs. 50, 100, 1000 in 2005. The RS. 5 notes were stopped from being printed, but have started again since 2009.

Language panel

Language panel on an Indian banknote

The language panel on Indian rupee banknotes display the denomination of the note in 15 of the 22 official languages of India.

Security features

  • Watermark — White side panel of notes has Mahatma Gandhi watermark.
  • Security thread — All notes have a silver security band with inscriptions visible when held against light which reads Bharat in Hindi and RBI in English.
  • Latent image — Higher denominational notes (Rupees 20 onwards) display the note's denominational value in numerals when held horizontally at eye level.
  • Microlettering — Numeral denominational value is visible under magnifying glass between security thread and latent image.
  • Fluorescence — Number panels glow under ultra-violet light.
  • Optically variable ink — Notes of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 have their numerals printed in optically variable ink. Number appears green when note is held flat but changes to blue when viewed at angle.
  • Back-to-back registration — Floral design printed on the front and the back of the note coincides and perfectly overlap each other when viewed against light.

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Currency of Pakistan

The rupee (sign: Rs; code: PKR) is the currency of Pakistan. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the State Bank of Pakistan, the central bank of the country. The most commonly used symbol for the rupee is Rs, used on receipts when purchasing goods and services. In Pakistan, the rupee is referred to as the "rupees", "rupaya" or "rupaye". As standard in Indian English, large values of rupees are counted in terms of thousands, lakh (100 thousand, in digits 1,00,000) and crore (10 million, in digits 1,00,00,000).


The origin of the word "rupee" is found in the Sanskrit word rūp or rūpā, which means "silver" in many Indo-Aryan languages. The Sanskrit word rūpyakam (रूप्यक) means coin of silver. The derivative word Rūpaya was used to denote the coin introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his reign from 1540 to 1545 CE.

The Pakistani rupee was put into circulation after the country became independent from the British Rule in 1947. For the first few months of independence, Pakistan used Indian coins and notes with "Pakistan" stamped on them. New coins and banknotes were issued in 1948. Like the Indian rupee, it was originally divided into 16 annas (آن), each of 4 pice (پيس) or 12 pie (پاى). The currency was decimalised on 1 January 1961, with the rupee subdivided into 100 pice, renamed (in English) paise (singular paisa) later the same year. However, coins denominated in paise have not been issued since 1994.


In 1948, coins were introduced in denominations of 1 pice, ½, 1 and 2 annas, ¼, ½ and 1 rupee. 1 pie coins were added in 1951. In 1961, coins for 1, 5 and 10 pice were issued, followed later the same year by 1 paisa, 5 and 10 paise coins. In 1963, 10 and 25 paise coins were introduced, followed by 2 paise the next year. 1 rupee coins were reintroduced in 1979, followed by 2 rupees in 1998 and 5 rupees in 2002. 2 paise coins were last minted in 1976, with 1 paisa coins ceasing production in 1979. The 5, 10, 25 and 50 paise all ceased production in 1994. There are two variations of 2 rupee coins; most have clouds above the Badshahi Masjid but many don't have. This is noted by very few people. The one and two rupee coins were changed to aluminium in 2007

Currently Circulating Coins
Depiction (Front) Depiction (Back) Value Year in Use Composition Front Illustration Back Illustration
Re. 1 1998 - Present Bronze and Aluminium Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar Mausoleum, Sehwan Shareef
Rs. 2 1998 - Present Brass and Aluminium Crescent and Star Badshahi Masjid, Lahore
Rs. 5 2002 - Present Cupro-nickel Crescent and Star


In 1947, provisional issues of banknotes were made, consisting of Government of India and Reserve Bank of India notes for 1, 2, 5, 10 and 100 rupees overprinted with the text "Government of Pakistan" in English and Urdu. Regular government issues commenced in 1948 in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 rupees. The government continued to issue 1 rupee notes until the 1980s but other note issuing was taken over by the State Bank in 1953, when 2, 5, 10 and 100 rupees notes were issued. Only a few 2 rupees notes were issued. 50 rupees notes were added in 1957, with 2 rupees notes reintroduced in 1985. In 1986, 500 rupees notes were introduced, followed by 1000 rupees the next year. 2 and 5 rupees notes were replaced by coins in 1998 and 2002. 20 rupee notes were added in 2005, followed by 5000 rupees in 2006.

All banknotes other than the 1 and 2 rupees feature a portrait of Muhammad Ali Jinnah on the obverse along with writing in Urdu. The reverses of the banknotes vary in design and have English text. The only Urdu text found on the reverse is the Urdu translation of the Prophetic Hadith, "Seeking honest livelihood is worship of God."

The banknotes vary in size and colour, with larger denominations being longer than smaller ones. All contain multiple colours. However, each denomination does have one colour which predominates. All banknotes feature a watermark for security purposes. On the larger denomination notes, the watermark is a picture of Jinnah, while on smaller notes, it is a crescent and star. Different types of security threads are also present in each banknote.

Banknotes before the 2005 Series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description - Reverse Status
Obverse Reverse
Re. 1 95 × 66 mm Brown Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal in Lahore No longer in Circulation
Rs. 2 109 × 66 mm Purple Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Rs. 5 127 × 73 mm Burgundy Khojak Tunnel in Balochistan
Rs. 10 141 × 73 mm Green Mohenjo-daro in Larkana District No longer printed - Still in Circulation
Rs. 50 154 × 73 mm Purple and Red Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort in Lahore
Rs. 100 165 × 73 mm Red and Orange Islamia College in Peshawar
Rs. 500 175 × 73 mm Green, tan, red, and orange The State Bank of Pakistan in Islamabad
Rs. 1000 175 × 73 mm Blue Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore

The State Bank has started a new series of banknotes, phasing out the older designs for new, more secure ones.

2005 Series
Image Value Dimensions Main Colour Description - Reverse Date of issue
Obverse Reverse
Rs. 5 115 x 65 mm Greenish Grey Gwadar port, which is a mega project in Balochistan (Pakistan) July 08, 2008
Rs. 10 115 × 65 mm Green Bab ul Khyber which is the entrance to the Khyber Pass, Khyber Agency, FATA May 27, 2006
Rs. 20 123 × 65 mm Orange Green Mohenjo-daro in Larkana District March 22, 2008
Rs. 50 131 x 65 m.m. Purple K2, second highest mountain of the world in northern areas of Pakistan July 08, 2008
Rs. 100 139 × 65 mm Red Quaid-e-Azam Residency in Ziarat November 11, 2006
Rs. 500 147 × 65 mm Rich Deep Green Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Rs. 1000 155 × 65 mm Dark blue Islamia College in Peshawar February 26, 2007
Rs. 5000 163 × 65 mm Mustard Faisal Mosque in Islamabad May 27, 2006

Exchange rate

Dollar-rupee exchange rate

The Rupee was pegged to the US Dollar until 1982. When the government of General Zia-ul-Haq, changed it to managed float. This has been regarded as the best decision by Zia. As a result, the rupee devalued by 38.5% between 1982/83 and 1987/88 and the anti-export bias in the economy was reduced. The Pakistani rupee depreciated against the US dollar until the turn of the century, when Pakistan's large current-account surplus pushed the value of the rupee up versus the dollar. Pakistan's central bank then stabilized by lowering interest rates and buying dollars, in order to preserve the country's export competitiveness. The year 2008 has been termed as disastrous year for the rupee as so far (up to August 2008) it has lost 23% of its value since December, 2007 to a record low of 79.2 against US Dollar. The major reasons for this depreciation are ongoing political crisis, increased current and trade accounts deficits and rising militancy in the NWFP and FATA areas.

Since the allegedly forex scam case arrests, greenback value is depreciating against ruppee. Dollar fell from 87 to 0.916 in international forex exchange and 0.9 in Pakistani Open Market.

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